In 2007, Ishola Agbaje, Deirdre Rogers, Carmel McVicar, Neil McClure, Albert Atkinson, Con Mallidis, and Sheena Lewis published “Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Implications for Male Reproductive Function,” hereby “Diabetes Mellitus: Implications,” in the journal Human Reproduction. In their article, the authors explore the effects of elevated blood sugar in the form of diabetes mellitus on the quality of male sperm. When investigating possible fertility issues, fertility specialists often study semen, the male reproductive fluid that contains sperm cells to detect changes in sperm count, movement, and structure. In “Diabetes Mellitus: Implications,” the authors use both conventional semen analysis and technical molecular methods to assess the quality of sperm from diabetic and non-diabetic men. The authors found that men with diabetes had higher levels of DNA damage within their sperm and highlighted a need for additional research on the link between diabetes and male reproductive health.

In 1971, a group of researchers founded the Monash IVF Research Program with the mission to discover how in vitro fertilization, or IVF, techniques could become a treatment for infertility in both men and women. The program included researcher Carl Wood and colleagues John Leeton, Alex Lopata, Alan Trounson, and Ian Johnston at the Queen Victoria Medical Center and Royal Women’s Hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Since the program’s establishment in 1971, the Monash IVF Research Program has helped to develop and implement many IVF technologies still used in clinical practice as of 2020. Additionally, the program established some of the first successful IVF pregnancies and births. As of 2020, the Monash IVF Research Program is one of Australia’s leading fertility programs and has used their technologies to help provide IVF treatment to thousands of infertile men and women.

In 2021, the World Health Organization, or WHO, published the sixth edition of their Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, which provides standardized guidelines to physicians and other medical professionals performing semen analysis. Semen analysis is a technique that medical professionals use to analyze the characteristics of a male’s semen and sperm cells to identify possible causes of male infertility. A sperm cell is the male sex cell that fertilizes a female’s egg cell, while semen is the fluid containing sperm cells that men release during ejaculation. The WHO created the first laboratory manual for semen analysis in 1980, a time when there was no standardized way to analyze a male’s semen sample. The WHO laboratory manual was one of the first documents to standardize a procedure for evaluating human semen to look for sperm abnormalities, and it remains one of the most widespread methods of evaluating a male’s fertility potential and determining the causes of male infertility.