In 2001, David Kimberlin and colleagues published “Natural History of Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Acyclovir Era,” hereafter, “Natural History of Herpes,” in the journal Pediatrics. In the article, the researchers explore the natural history of herpes, which entails asking how herpes simplex virus, or HSV, progresses in infants when treated with acyclovir, one of the first antiviral medications that effectively treated HSV in adults. HSV can cause painful lesions on the mouth or genitals. When infants contract HSV, it can cause life-threatening illness, including skin lesions, blindness, developmental delays, and often death. At the time of publication, researchers and physicians had evidence that acyclovir could effectively treat neonatal HSV, but physicians still struggled to address the condition quickly enough to improve treatment outcomes. “Natural History of Herpes” presents an updated picture, as of 2001, of how HSV progresses to provide physicians with quicker ways to identify the condition in neonates, who frequently contract the disease from their mothers in utero or during labor and delivery.