Orchiopexy, also known as orchidopexy, is a surgical technique that can correct cryptorchidism and was successfully performed for one of the first times in 1877 in Scotland. Cryptorchidism, a condition where one or both of the testicles fail to descend before birth, is one of the most common male genital birth defects, affecting approximately 2 to 8 percent of full-term male infants, and around 33 percent of premature infants. Typically in the womb, male testes form within the abdomen, then descend into the scrotal area between twenty-five to thirty-five weeks’ gestation. If one or both testicles fail to descend before birth, physicians use orchiopexy to surgically relocate the undescended testes to their normal position in the scrotum. According to many researchers, most cases of cryptorchidism do not resolve on their own, and therefore, orchiopexy surgery is often necessary. Orchiopexy, when performed before puberty, can decrease the risk of testicular cancer and infertility associated with cryptorchidism.