In 1980, Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti published their results on a histological study they performed on congenital club foot in human fetuses. The researchers examined the feet of four aborted fetuses and compared the skeletal tissues from healthy feet to those affected by congenital club foot. Infants born with club foot are born with one or both feet rigidly twisted inwards and upwards, making typical movement painful and challenging. Ippolito and Ponseti studied how the connective tissues, such as the ligaments and tendons stretching across the foot and ankle, function to pull the affected foot out of place as the fetus develops. Their findings helped researchers determine club foot’s potential causes and possible treatments by focusing on connective tissues.

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