John Langdon Down studied medicine in England in the nineteenth century and was one of the first people to develop a complete description of the disorder that would later be known as Trisomy 21, or Down Syndrome. Down Syndrome is a condition caused by the presence of an extra chromosome, which may cause a person to be born with certain impaired learning abilities and physical features such as a short neck, flattened face, and almond-shaped eyes. In 1866, Down published one of the first accounts to accurately describe people with Down Syndrome, or what he called “Mongolism,” and identify it as a distinct condition. Additionally, Down advocated for people with mental disabilities at a time when their families commonly abandoned them and medical professionals did not prioritize them. He improved the quality of care for people in the centers he worked in and increased their educational opportunities so they would be better prepared to live a normal life. Down brought increased attention to Down Syndrome, leading to the future discovery of the chromosomal anomaly that causes the disorder, and promoting a higher standard of care for people with mental disabilities.

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