In the early 2000s, Manjong Han, Xiaodang Yang, Jennifer Farrington, and Ken Muneoka investigated how genes and proteins in fetal mice (Mus musculus) influenced those fetal mice to regenerate severed toes at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. The group used hind limbs from mice to show how the gene Msx1 (Homeobox 7) functions in regenerating amputated digits. The researchers showed that in the process of regenerating digit tips, Msx1 genes make products that regulate or influence other genes, such as the Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 gene (BMP4 gene), to produce proteins, such as the BMP4 proteins. The researchers also showed that BMP4 proteins, which are produced from the BMP4 gene, function in tissues during the process of limb development. Furthermore, while Msx1 genes regulate other genes during the process of regeneration, they don't produce proteins otherwise needed to organize cells in the regeneration of digit tissues. The group published their results in 2003 as Digit Regeneration Is Regulated by Msx1 and BMP4 in Fetal Mice.

In 1995, researchers Ann Burke, Craig Nelson, Bruce Morgan, and Cliff Tabin in the US studied the genes that regulate the construction of vertebra in developing chick and mouse embryos, they showed similar patterns of gene regulation across both species, and they concluded that those patterns were inherited from an ancestor common to all vertebrate animals. The group analyzed the head-to-tail (anterior-posterior) axial development of vertebrates, as the anterior-posterior axis showed variation between species over the course of evolutionary time. Along those axes, they showed where Hox genes produced RNAs. Hox genes have the homeobox, a portion of DNA contributes to the generation of the body plans of animals, plants, and fungi. In the 1995 study, the researchers compared the expression patterns of Hox genes across the chick and mouse embryos, showing where the patterns were similar and where they differed. Based on those comparisons, they argued that Hox genes were present in the ancestors of tetrapods and fishes, and that Hox genes function in the segmentation of the anterior-posterior vertebrate axis in both chick and mouse embryos.

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