Title By Description Created Last modifiedsort descending
Alan Mathison Turing (1912-1954) Julia Damerow Alan Mathison Turing was a British mathematician and computer scientist who lived in the early twentieth century. Among important contributions in the field of mathematics, computer science, and philosophy, he developed a mathematical model of morphogenesis. This model describing biological growth became fundamental for research on the process of embryo development. 2010-06-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edwin Grant Conklin (1863-1952) D. Brian Scheurmann Edwin Grant Conklin was born in Waldo, Ohio, on 24 November 1863 to parents Nancy Maria Hull and Dr. Abram V. Conklin. Conklin's family was very religious and he seriously considered a theistic path before choosing a career in academics. Conklin's scientific work was primarily in the areas of embryology, cytology, and morphology, though many questions regarding the relationships between science, society, and philosophy had an influence on both his writings and academic lectures. 2009-01-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Franz and Sally Hughes Schrader Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1919 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Franz Josef Kallmann (1897–1965) Jessica Resnick Franz Josef Kallmann studied the biological and genetic factors of psychological disorders in Germany and the United States in the twentieth century. His studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute in New York City, New York, focused on the genetic factors that cause psychiatric disorders. Kallmann was one of the first to use twins to study how a mental disorder is passed on by comparing the occurrence of epilepsy and schizophrenia in both fraternal and identical twins. 2017-04-06 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
St. George Jackson Mivart (1827-1900) Divyash Chhetri St. George Jackson Mivart studied animals and worked in England during the nineteenth century. He also proposed a theory of organismal development that he called individuation, and he critiqued Charles Darwin's argument for evolution by natural selection. His work on prosimians, a group of primates excluding apes and monkeys, helped scientists better investigate the Primate group. 2014-04-04 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) Kristin Bolfert Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was born in Delft, the Netherlands, on 24 October 1632 to Margriet Jacobsdochter van den Berch and Philips Thooniszoon, both of whom were middle-class artisans. He attended grammar school in Warmond, and then temporarily moved to Benthuizen to live with relatives. Eventually Leeuwenhoek left for Amsterdam to work as a cloth merchant's apprentice. Returning to Delft, he married Barbara de Mey on 29 July 1654, and worked as a shopkeeper. The marriage resulted in five children, only one of whom, Maria, outlived Leeuwenhoek. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Dr. Sturtevant Collecting Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1920s 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821–1910) Alexis Darby In the nineteenth century, Elizabeth Blackwell was a women’s healthcare reformer and the first woman to receive her medical degree in the United States. She practiced medicine as a primary care physician in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Blackwell graduated medical school from Geneva Medical College in Geneva, New York, where she was the first woman to receive a medical degree in the US. 2017-12-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833) Lindsey O'Connell Johann Friedrich Meckel studied abnormal animal and human anatomy in nineteenth century Germany in an attempt to explain embryological development. During Meckel's lifetime he catalogued embryonic malformations in multiple treatises. Meckel's focus on malformations led him to develop concepts like primary and secondary malformations, atavism, and recapitulation- all of which influenced the fields of medicine and embryology during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 2013-10-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Mary Huettner collecting in the marsh Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1921 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Matthew Stanley Meselson (1930– ) Victoria Hernandez 2017-05-23 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Nikolai Ivanovic Vavilov (1887-1943) Marci Baranski Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov proposed theories of plant genetic diversity and participated in the political debate about genetics in Soviet Russia in the early twentieth century. Vavilov collected plant species around the world, building one of the first and most comprehensive seed banks, and he spent much of his life researching plant breeding and genetics. Vavilov also developed a theory of the historical centers of origin of cultivated plants. Vavilov spent most of his scientific career in Russia, although he studied abroad and traveled extensively. 2014-04-15 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Jane Marion Oppenheimer (1911-1966) Kimberly A. Buettner Jane Marion Oppenheimer, embryologist and historian of science and medicine, was born on 19 September 1911 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Sylvia Stern and James H. Oppenheimer. After studying zoology at Bryn Mawr College, Oppenheimer received her AB degree in 1932. Oppenheimer received her PhD in embryology at Yale University in 1935 and worked as a research fellow from 1935-1936. While at Yale she was influenced by the work of Ross Granville Harrison and John Spangler Nicholas, the latter of whom was Oppenheimer's PhD advisor. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Charles B. Atwell 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pierre Budin (1846-1907) Kelsey Rebovich Pierre Constant Budin worked in France to improve the lives of newborns and their mothers during the late nineteenth century. Budin stressed the importance of proper nutrition in infants and educated new mothers on breastfeeding and infant care. Budin established infant care facilities and created a nutritional check-up system for infants. Budin helped design early artificial nipples, breast pumps, and incubators for premature newborns. He also began the practice of consulting with new mothers after they gave birth, redefining the roles of obstetricians. 2017-02-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Katsuma Dan on his first meeting with Victor Heilbrunn Katsuma Dan Katsuma Dan reflects on his first meeting with Dr. Victor Heilbrunn at the University of Pennsylvania in December 1930. Recorded at the University of Washington, Friday Harbor group in 1978. 1978 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Theophilus Shickel Painter (1889-1969) Dorothy Haskett Theophilus Shickel Painter studied the structure and function of chromosomes in the US during in the early to mid-twentieth century. Painter worked at the University of Texas at Austin in Austin, Texas. In the 1920s and 1930s, Painter studied the chromosomes of the salivary gland giant chromosomes of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster), with Hermann J. Muller. Muller and Painter studied the ability of X-rays to cause changes in the chromosomes of fruit flies. Painter also studied chromosomes in mammals. 2014-11-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) Kimberly A. Buettner Best known for his contributions to the field of embryology, Karl Ernst von Baer also pursued a variety of other areas of study including medicine, botany, zoology, and anthropology. Committing his life to scientific research, von Baer's work led to the advancement of the understanding of mammalian reproduction, development, and organ functioning. His embryological discoveries ultimately led him to a view of development that supported epigenesis and refuted long-held thinking about preformation. 2007-10-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Libbie Henrietta Hyman (1888-1969) Kristin Bolfert Libbie Henrietta Hyman was born into a recently immigrated Jewish family on 6 December 1888 in Des Moines, Iowa. One of many siblings and daughter to parents Sabina Neumann and Joseph Hyman, who did not particularly support her interests in science, Hyman excelled in school and indulged her interests in biology in her free time. From a young age, Hyman collected and cataloged flora around her home. Despite being valedictorian of her high school class, Hyman's first job was labeling cereal boxes in a local factory. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Philip Fischelis 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Catherine DeAngelis (1940– ) Alexis Darby In the late-twentieth century in the United States, Catherine DeAngelis was a pediatric physician, researcher, and editor of multiple medical journals. During her time with the Journal of the American Medical Association, DeAngelis became the journal’s first female editor. At Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, she studied how physician-nurse interactions affected patient care, how immunizations and adolescent pregnancy affected children, and how medications affected men and women differently. 2017-12-07 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Columbia Gang Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1920 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Arthur Earl Walker (1907-1995) Alexandra Bohnenberger Arthur Earl Walker was a medical researcher and physician who studied the brain and neurosurgery in the United States during the twentieth century. Walker examined the connections of the thalamus to the rest of the brain and how the thalamus coordinates sensory signals. The thalamus is a cluster of nerve cells located between the two hemispheres of the brain and it is responsible for consciousness and sensory interpretation. 2017-03-07 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Eric Wieschaus (1947- ) Justin M. Wolter, Catherine May Eric Wieschaus studied how genes cause fruit fly larvae to develop in the US and Europe during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, Wieschaus and colleague Christiane Nusslein-Volhard described genes and gene products that help form the fruit fly body plan and establish the larval segments during embryogenesis. This work earned Wieschaus and Nüsslein-Volhard the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. 2014-04-29 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Samuel W. Geiser 1922 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Wilhelm August Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922) Katherine Brind'Amour, Benjamin Garcia Wilhelm August Oscar Hertwig contributed to embryology through his studies of cells in development and his discovery that only one spermatozoon is necessary to fertilize an egg. He was born 21 April 1849 to Elise Trapp and Carl Hertwig in Hessen, Germany. After his brother Richard was born the family moved to Muhlhausen in Thuringen where the boys were educated. The two brothers later attended the university in Jena from 1868 to 1888 and studied under Ernst Haeckel, who later convinced Hertwig to leave chemistry and pursue medicine. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
"The Development of the Pronephros during the Embryonic and Early Larval Life of the Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)" (1932), by Rachel L. Carson Karen Wellner Rachel L. Carson studied biology at Johns Hopkins University in Maryland and graduated in 1933 with an MA upon the completion of her thesis, The Development of the Pronephros during the Embryonic and Early Larval Life of the Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The research that Carson conducted for this thesis project grounded many of the claims and observations she presented in her 1962 book, Silent Spring. 2014-02-28 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680) Kimberly A. Buettner Jan Swammerdam, known as the founder of the preformation theory based on his extensive research on insect development, was born on 12 February 1637 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to Baertje Jans Corvers and Jan Jacobszoon Swammerdam. He began medical school on 11 October 1661 at the University of Leiden. A few of his classmates included Regnier de Graaf, Frederik Ruysch, Niels Stensen (Nicolaus Steno), and Robertus Padtbrugge. Padtbrugge would later join the East India Company and send Swammerdam exotic animals. 2007-10-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Rudolf Carl Virchow (1821-1902) Megan Kearl Rudolf Carl Virchow lived in nineteenth century Prussia, now Germany, and proposed that omnis cellula e cellula, which translates to each cell comes from another cell, and which became and fundamental concept for cell theory. He helped found two fields, cellular pathology and comparative pathology, and he contributed to many others. Ultimately Virchow argued that disease is caused by changes in normal cells, also known as cellular pathology. 2012-03-17 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Charles Knight and Robert Chambers 1931 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Josef Warkany (1902–1992) Bianca Zietal, Chanapa Tantibanchachai Josef Warkany studied the environmental causes of birth defects in the United States in the twentieth century. Warkany was one of the first researchers to show that factors in the environment could cause birth defects, and he helped to develop guidelines for the field of teratology, the study of birth defects. Prior to Warkany’s work, scientists struggled to explain if or how environmental agents could cause birth defects. Warkany demonstrated that a deficiency or excess of vitamin A in maternal nutrition could cause birth defects. 2017-05-26 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Dr. and Mrs. E. P. Lyo 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Amanda Andrei Johann Gregor Mendel studied plants and their patterns of inheritance in Austria during the nineteenth century. Mendel experimented with the pea plant, Pisum, and his publication, 'Versuche uber Pflanzenhybriden' (“Experiments on Plant Hybridization”), published in 1866, revolutionized theories of trait inheritance. Mendel’s discoveries relating to factors, traits, and how they pass between generations of organisms enabled scientists in the twentieth century to build theories of genetics. 2013-07-27 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Mary Huettner Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pope Gregory XIV (1535-1591) Angel Lopez Pope Gregory XIV, born Nicolo Sfondrati, reversed the bull of Pope Sixtus V, Effraenatum, under which an abortion at any time of gestation can be punished by excommunication. He supported the Aristotelian distinction between an "animated" and "unanimated" fetus, making abortion of an unanimated fetus punishable by lesser means. This decision contributed to the historical debates within the Roman Catholic Church on when a fetus has a soul, and when abortion was punishable by excommunication. 2010-06-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Craig C. Mello (1960- ) Catherine May Craig C. Mello is an American developmental biologist and Nobel Laureate, who helped discover RNA interference (RNAi). Along with his colleague Andrew Fire, he developed gene knockouts using RNAi. In 006 Mello won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contribution. Mello also contributed to developmental biology, focusing on gene regulation, cell signaling, cleavage formation, germline determination, cell migration, cell fate differentiation, and morphogenesis. 2011-11-30 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Benjamin C. Gruenberg 1922 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Charles Robert Cantor (1942- ) Alexis Abboud Charles Robert Cantor helped sequence the human genome, and he developed methods to non-invasively determine the genes in human fetuses. Cantor worked in the US during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. His early research focused on oligonucleotides, small molecules of DNA or RNA. That research enabled the development of a technique that Cantor subsequently used to describe nucleotide sequences of DNA, a process called sequencing, in humans. Cantor was the principal scientist for the Human Genome Project, for which scientists sequenced the entirety of the human genome in 2003. 2015-06-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pope Pius XI (1857-1939) Katherine Brind'Amour Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was born to the wealthy owner of a silk factory on 31 May 1857 in Desio, Italy. He was ordained to the priesthood at the age of eighteen, at which time he began a long life devoted to study, peacekeeping, and the betterment of societies around the world. Pius XI is noted here for his contribution to the Roman Catholic Church's early twentieth century approach to issues regarding contraception and abortion, which was presented in his December 1930 encyclical "Casti Connubii." 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) Karen Wellner Ernest Everett Just was an early twentieth century American experimental embryologist involved in research at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and the Stazione Zoologica in Naples, Italy. Just was known for simple but elegant experiments that supported the "fertilizing" theory of Frank R. Lillie and served as an antagonist to Jacques Loeb's work with artificial parthenogenesis. 2010-06-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sturtevant and Huettner standing by their canoe Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Arthur William Galston (1920–2008) Cecilia Chou Arthur W. Galston studied plant hormones in the United States during the late-twentieth century. His dissertation on the flowering process of soybean plants led others to develop Agent Orange, the most widely employed herbicide during the Vietnam War, used to defoliate forests and eliminate enemy cover and food sources. Galston protested the spraying of those defoliants in Vietnam, as they could be harmful to humans, animals, and the environment. 2017-04-27 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
William Stewart Halsted (1852-1922) Carolina Abboud William Stewart Halsted was a surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, during the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1894 Halsted described his procedure for treating breast cancer by removing the breast tissue, chest muscles, and lymph nodes in the armpit, a procedure he named radical mastectomy, and that became the standard of care for treating breast cancer until 1970. 2017-07-23 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
David Starr Jordan (1851-1931) Jill Briggs David Starr Jordan studied fish and promoted eugenics in the US during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In his work, he embraced Charles Darwin s theory of evolution and described the importance of embryology in tracing phylogenic relationships. In 1891, he became the president of Stanford University in Stanford, California. Jordan condemned war and promoted conservationist causes for the California wilderness, and he advocated for the eugenic sterilization of thousands of Americans. 2013-06-26 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sturtevant in uniform, view 2 Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1917 3 Jul 2018 - 9:40:59pm
Mother Teresa (1910-1997) Katherine Brind'Amour Mother Teresa, a Roman Catholic nun known for her charitable work and attention to the poor, was born 26 August 1910. The youngest child of Albanian parents Nikola and Drane Bojaxhiu, she was christened Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu and spent her early life in the place of her birth, present-day Skopje, in the Republic of Macedonia. In addition to her unwavering devotion to serve the sick and the poor, Mother Teresa firmly defended traditional Catholic teachings on more controversial issues, such as contraception and abortion. 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edward Stuart Russell (1887-1954) Mark A. Ulett Edward Stuart Russell was born 23 March 1887 to Helen Cockburn Young and the Reverend John N. Russell in Port Glasgow, Scotland. Friends and co-workers alike knew Russell as a quiet and focused, though always kind and helpful person. Trained in classics and biology, Russell's interests drew him to the study of historical and philosophical issues in the biological sciences, particularly morphology and animal behavior. According to Nils Roll-Hansen, Russell was one of the most influential philosophers of biology in the second third of the twentieth century. 2010-06-29 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
H. P. K. Agersborg 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Max Ludwig Henning Delbruck (1906–1981) Victoria Hernandez Max Ludwig Henning Delbrick applied his knowledge of theoretical physics to biological systems such as bacterial viruses called bacteriophages, or phages, and gene replication during the twentieth century in Germany and the US. Delbrück demonstrated that bacteria undergo random genetic mutations to resist phage infections. Those findings linked bacterial genetics to the genetics of higher organisms. In the mid-twentieth century, Delbrück helped start the Phage Group and Phage Course in the US, which further organized phage research. 2017-09-20 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Katharine McCormick (1876-1967) Aliya Buttar Katharine Dexter McCormick, who contributed the majority of funding for the development of the oral contraceptive pill, was born to Josephine and Wirt Dexter on 27 August 1875 in Dexter, Michigan. After growing up in Chicago, Illinois, she attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where she graduated in 1904 with a BS in biology. That same year, she married Stanley McCormick, the son of Cyrus McCormick, inventor and manufacturer of the mechanized reaper. 2007-11-08 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am