Title By Description Created Last modifiedsort descending
Samuel W. Geiser 1922 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Carl Richard Moore (1892-1955) Mary Drago Carl Richard Moore was a professor and researcher at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois who studied sex hormones in animals from 1916 until his death in 1955. Moore focused on the role of hormones on sex differentiation in offspring, the optimal conditions for sperm production, and the effects of vasectomy or testicular implants on male sex hormone production. Moore's experiments to create hermaphrodites in the laboratory contributed to the theory of a feedback loop between the pituitary and fetal gonadal hormones to control sex differentiation. 2014-02-18 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Benjamin C. Gruenberg 1922 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Samuel Randall Detwiler (1890-1957) Adam R. Navis Samuel Randall Detwiler was an embryologist who studied neural development in embryos and vertebrate retinas. He discovered evidence for the relationship between somites and spinal ganglia, that transplanted limbs can be controlled by foreign ganglia, and the plasticity of ganglia in response to limb transplantations. He also extensively studied vertebrate retinas during and after embryonic development. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Harald zur Hausen (1936–) Grace Kim Harald zur Hausen studied viruses and discovered that certain strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease, can cause cervical cancer, in Europe during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Zur Hausen spent his research career identifying the viruses that cause diseases, particularly cancer-causing viruses (oncoviruses). He primarily focused on HPV and cervical cancer. Zur Hausen hypothesized that HPV was cancerous and discovered that two strains, HPV 16 and 18, caused cervical cancer. 2017-07-24 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Mother Teresa (1910-1997) Katherine Brind'Amour Mother Teresa, a Roman Catholic nun known for her charitable work and attention to the poor, was born 26 August 1910. The youngest child of Albanian parents Nikola and Drane Bojaxhiu, she was christened Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu and spent her early life in the place of her birth, present-day Skopje, in the Republic of Macedonia. In addition to her unwavering devotion to serve the sick and the poor, Mother Teresa firmly defended traditional Catholic teachings on more controversial issues, such as contraception and abortion. 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Charles Knight and Robert Chambers 1931 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (1857-1927) B. R. Erick Peirson Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen studied plants and helped found the field of genetics, contributing methods and concepts to the study of heredity around the turn of the twentieth century in Denmark. His experiments on heredity and variation in plants influenced the methods and techniques of geneticists, and his distinction between the genotype of an organism-its hereditary disposition-and its phenotype-its observable characteristics-remains at the core of contemporary biology. Johannsen criticized biological explanations that relied on concepts such as vitalism and teleology. 2012-11-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Etienne Stephane Tarnier (1828–1897) Kelsey Rebovich Etienne Stephane Tarnier was a physician who worked with premature infants in France during the nineteenth century. He worked at the Maternité Port-Royal in Paris, France, a hospital for poor pregnant women. Tarnier developed and introduced prototypes of infant incubators to the Maternité in 1881. Tarnier's incubators became standard in neonatal care, especially for premature infants, enabling doctors to save many such infants that previously would have died. 2017-07-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Dr. and Mrs. E. P. Lyo 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) Steve Elliott Jacques Loeb experimented on embryos in Europe and the United States at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Among the first to study embryos through experimentation, Loeb helped found the new field of experimental embryology. Notably, Loeb showed scientists how to create artificial parthenogenesis, thus refuting the idea that spermatozoa alone were necessary to develop eggs into embryos and confirming the idea that the chemical constitution of embryos environment affected their development. 2009-06-10 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pope Pius XI (1857-1939) Katherine Brind'Amour Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was born to the wealthy owner of a silk factory on 31 May 1857 in Desio, Italy. He was ordained to the priesthood at the age of eighteen, at which time he began a long life devoted to study, peacekeeping, and the betterment of societies around the world. Pius XI is noted here for his contribution to the Roman Catholic Church's early twentieth century approach to issues regarding contraception and abortion, which was presented in his December 1930 encyclical "Casti Connubii." 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Mary Huettner Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
James William Kitching (1922-2003) Paige Madison James William Kitching collected and studied fossils of dinosaurs and early humans in the twentieth century. He worked at the Bernard Price Institute for Paleontological Research in South Africa. During the fifty-three years he worked at the institute, Kitching spent eighteen of those in the field uncovering fossils. Kitching recovered fossils of early human ancestors, later called Australopithecines, as well as fossils of dinosaurs and ancient mammals. When he died in 2003, the Bernard Price Institute housed one of the largest fossil collections in the southern hemisphere. 2015-03-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Calvin Blackman Bridges (1889-1938) Kevin Gleason Calvin Blackman Bridges studied chromosomes and heredity in the US throughout the early twentieth century. Bridges performed research with Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University in New York City, New York, and at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Bridges and Morgan studied heredity in Drosophila, the common fruit fly. Throughout the early twentieth century, researchers were gathering evidence that genes, or what Gregor Mendel had called the factors that control heredity, are located on chromosomes. 2017-05-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Theodora (Theo) Emily Colborn (1927-2014) Alexis Abboud Theodora Colborn studied how chemicals affect organisms as they develop and reproduce during the twentieth and twenty first centuries in the US. By the 1940s, researchers had reported that chemicals from agricultural and industrial processes affected how wild organisms developed, but in 1991, Colborn organized the Wingspread Conference in Racine, Wisconsin, at which a group of scientists classed these chemicals as environmentally harmful substances. Colborn and her colleagues called those chemicals endocrine disruptors, as they mimic or block the body's endocrine system. 2014-12-30 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Chang and Eng Bunker (1811–1874) Mudhaffar Bahjat Chāng (Chang) and Ēn (Eng) Bunker were conjoined twins in the nineteenth century in the United States, the first pair of conjoined twins whose condition was well documented in medical records. A conjoined twins is a rare condition in which two infants are born physically connected to each other. In their youth, the brothers earned money by putting themselves on display as curiosities and giving lectures and demonstrations about their condition. The Bunker brothers toured around the world, including the United States, Europe, Canada, and France, and allowed physicians to examine them. 2018-01-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sturtevant and Huettner standing by their canoe Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Allan Charles Wilson (1934-1991) Dorothy Haskett Allan C. Wilson studied genes, proteins, and body structures of animals and humans in the US during the second half of the twentieth century. Wilson also studied human evolution. Although morphology and behaviors of humans (Homo sapiens) and great apes differ, Wilson found that they have biochemical and genetic similarities. Wilson and his colleagues calculated the time period of humans' and African apes' common ancestor. 2014-07-24 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Austin Bradford Hill (1897-1991) Carolina Abboud During the twentieth century, Austin Bradford Hill researched diseases and their causes in England and developed the Bradford Hill criteria, which comprise the minimal requirements that must be met for a causal relationship to be established between a factor and a disease. Hill also suggested that researchers should randomize clinical trials to evaluate the effects of a drug or treatment by monitoring large groups of people. 2017-06-15 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
John Spangler Nicholas (1895-1963) Ellen M. Dupont John Spangler Nicholas, an American biologist, was born on 10 March 1895 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. He was the only child of Elizabeth Ellen Spangler, a teacher, and Samuel Trauger Nicholas, a Lutheran minister. Nicholas held myriad administrative positions throughout his life and his contributions to biology spanned several sub-disciplines, but his most notable accomplishments were in the field of embryology. 2008-07-23 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Katharine McCormick (1876-1967) Aliya Buttar Katharine Dexter McCormick, who contributed the majority of funding for the development of the oral contraceptive pill, was born to Josephine and Wirt Dexter on 27 August 1875 in Dexter, Michigan. After growing up in Chicago, Illinois, she attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where she graduated in 1904 with a BS in biology. That same year, she married Stanley McCormick, the son of Cyrus McCormick, inventor and manufacturer of the mechanized reaper. 2007-11-08 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sturtevant in uniform, view 2 Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1917 3 Jul 2018 - 9:40:59pm
Franz Julius Keibel (1861-1929) M. Elizabeth Barnes Franz Keibel studied the embryos of humans and other animals in Europe at the turn of the twentieth century. He lived and worked in several different parts of Germany and France. Keibel drew illustrations of embryos in many stages of development. Keibel used these illustrations, which he and others in the scientific community called normal plates, to describe the development of organisms in several species of vertebrates. 2014-06-21 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Maurice Ralph Hilleman (1919–2005) Christian H. Ross Maurice Ralph Hilleman developed vaccines at the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research in West Point, Pennsylvania, during the twentieth century. Over the course of his career at Merck, Hilleman created over forty vaccines, making him one of the most prolific developers of vaccine in the twentieth century. Of the fourteen vaccines commonly given to children in the US by 2015, Hilleman was responsible for eight of them. Hilleman's most widely used vaccine was his measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. 2017-04-13 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
H. P. K. Agersborg 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pope Innocent XI (1611-1689) Katherine Brind'Amour, Benjamin Garcia Pope Innocent XI, born Benedetto Odescalchi, made considerable contributions to the Roman Catholic approach to embryology by condemning several propositions on liberal moral theology in 1679, including two related to abortion and ensoulment. His rejection of these principles strengthened the Church's stance against abortion and for the idea of "hominization," meaning the presence of human qualities before birth. 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Harry Hamilton Laughlin (1880-1943) Rachel Gur-Arie Harry Hamilton Laughlin helped lead the eugenics movement in the United States during the early twentieth century. The US eugenics movement of the early twentieth century sought to reform the genetic composition of the United States population through sterilization and other restrictive reproductive measures. Laughlin worked as superintendent and assistant director of the Eugenics Research Office (ERO) at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, alongside director Charles Davenport. 2014-12-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Annie Dodge Wauneka (1910-1997) Lakshmeeramya Malladi Annie Dodge Wauneka, a member of the Navajo Tribal Council in Window Rock, Arizona, from 1951 to 1978, advocated for improved lifestyle, disease prevention, and access to medical knowledge in the Navajo Indian Reservation, later renamed the Navajo Nation. Wauneka served as chair of the Health and Welfare Committee of the Navajo Tribal Council and as a member of the US Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Indian Health. Wauneka advocated for initiatives aimed at promoting education, preventing tuberculosis, and reducing the infant mortality rate. 2017-12-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Bell Tower Millfield Street Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1930 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Carl Gottfried Hartman (1879-1968) Giavonna A. Goodman Carl Gottfried Hartman researched the reproductive physiology of opossums and rhesus monkeys. He was the first to extensively study the embryology and physiology of reproduction in opossums when little was known about this mammal. Hartman worked in Texas where opossums, the only marsupial that lives in North America, were abundant. The female opossum delivers her fetal opossums in her pouch, where one can easily observe their development. After studying opossums for thirteen years, Hartman investigated the reproductive physiology of rhesus monkeys, also known as macaques. 2011-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011) Jennifer R. Craer Rosalyn Sussman Yalow co-developed the radioimmunoassay (RIA), a method used to measure minute biological compounds that cause immune systems to produce antibodies. Yalow and research partner Solomon A. Berson developed the RIA in the early 1950s at the Bronx Veterans Administration (VA) Hospital, in New York City, New York. Yalow and Berson's methods expanded scientific research, particularly in the medical field, and contributed to medical diagnostics. For this achievement, Yalow received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1977. 2013-09-10 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731) Britta Martinez Frederik Ruysch made anatomical drawings and collected and preserved human specimens, many of which were infants and fetuses, in the Netherlands during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Ruysch had many interests, including anatomy, botany, and medicine, and he discovered structures of the lymphatic system and of the eye. His collection of preserved human specimens were used as educational tools for his students and for other physicians, and they were displayed in a museum of his own making that was open to the public. 2013-04-08 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Georgeanna Seegar Jones (1912-2005) Stephen C. Ruffenach Georgeanna Seegar Jones was a reproductive endocrinologist who created one of America' s most successful infertility clinics in West Virginia and eventually, along with her husband Howard W. Jones MD, performed the first in vitro fertilization in America, leading to the birth of Elizabeth Jordan Carr. Jones was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on 6 July 1912. Her father, Dr. John King Beck Emory Seegar, was a practicing physician at the time working in the field of obstetrics. 2009-07-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
J. Mavor and P. Geddes 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
John Craig Venter (1946- ) Tito Carvalho John Craig Venter helped map the genomes of humans, fruitflies, and other organisms in the US in the late 1990s and early 2000s, and he helped develop an organism with a synthetic genome. In February 2001, Venter and his team published a human genome sequence after using a technique known as Expressed Sequence Tags, or ESTs. Venter worked to bridge commercial investment with scientific research. Venter founded a number of private companies, including the for-profit Celera Genomics, headquartered in Alameda, California, as well as research institutes, such as the not-for-profit J. 2014-05-06 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857–1939) Jessica Resnick Paul Eugen Bleuler studied autism and schizophrenia, among other psychiatric disorders, throughout continental Europe in the early twentieth century. Bleuler worked as a psychiatrist caring for patients with psychiatric disorders at a variety of facilities in Europe. In 1908, Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia to describe a group of diseases that cause changes in thought processes and behavior in humans as well as difficulties relating to the world. 2017-04-06 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
E.B. Wilson at Columbia University Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1916 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
John D. Gearhart Ke Wu John D. Gearhart is a renowned American developmental geneticist best known for leading the Johns Hopkins University research team that first identified and isolated human pluripotent stem cells from human primordial germ cells, the precursors of fully differentiated germ cells. Born in Western Pennsylvania, Gearhart lived on the family farm located in the Allegheny Mountains for the first six years of his life. 2011-01-19 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Richard Doll (1912–2005) Phil Gaetano Richard Doll was an epidemiologist and public figure in the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Working primarily at the University of Oxford, in Oxford, England, Doll established a definitive correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Furthermore, Doll’s work helped legitimize epidemiology as a scientific discipline. Doll’s research also helped establish modern guidelines for oncological studies, as well as for contemporary and future research on the effect of smoking on pregnancy and fetal development. 2017-09-20 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sven Horstadius 1936 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Stanley Cohen (1922- ) Adam R. Navis Stanley Cohen is a biochemist who participated in the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). He shared the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Rita Levi-Montalcini for their work on the discovery of growth factors. His work led to the discovery of many other growth factors and their roles in development. 2007-11-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Walter Edward Dandy (1886-1946) Alexandra Bohnenberger Walter Edward Dandy studied abnormalities in the developing human brain in the United States in the twentieth century. He collaborated with pediatrician Kenneth Blackfan to provide the first clinical description of Dandy-Walker Syndrome, a congenital brain malformation in which the medial part of the brain, called the cerebellar vermis, is absent. Dandy also described the circulation of cerebral spinal fluid, the clear, watery fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord. 2017-03-02 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Zhang Lizhu (1921- ) Lijing Jiang Zhang Lizhu is a Chinese gynecologist and researcher. For most of her career, she worked in the Peking Medical College Third Hospital, renamed in 2000, Peking University Third Hospital. There, she led a team of researchers and physicians in the study of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer (ET) technology. Zhang and her colleagues contributed to the birth of the first test-tube baby in Mainland China in 1988. 2011-08-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Pitching Horseshoes Outside of Old Main Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1928 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856-1939) Jane Maienschein Edmund Beecher Wilson contributed to cell biology, the study of cells, in the US during the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. His three editions of The Cell in Development and Inheritance (or Heredity) in 1896, 1900, and 1925 introduced generations of students to cell biology. In The Cell, Wilson described the evidence and theories of his time about cells and identified topics for future study. He helped show how each part of the cell works during cell division and in every step of early development of an organism. 2013-08-05 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Margaret Ann Bulkley (James Barry) (1789−1865) Sarah Foster Margaret Ann Bulkley, under the male pseudonym James Barry, was one of the first female obstetricians in early nineteenth century British Empire. She was the first person to perform a cesarean section in South Africa. Cesarean section is a procedure in which a doctor cuts into the uterus of a pregnant woman to retrieve the fetus during complicated births. Bulkley hid her gender and lived life as the male Barry to practice medicine, an opportunity not allowed to women at the time. 2017-02-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Night on the Elizabeth Islands during a collecting trip Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1921 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Anne Laura Dorinthea McLaren (1927-2007) Aroob Khokhar Anne Laura Dorinthea McLaren was a developmental biologist known for her work with embryology in the twentieth century. McLaren was the first researcher to grow mouse embryos outside of the womb. She experimented by culturing mouse eggs and successfully developing them into embryos, leading to advancements with in vitro fertilization. 2010-06-23 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1880-1958) Ellen M. DuPont Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 15 October 1880 to Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, a suffragist, and Henry Stopes, an archaeologist and anthropologist. A paleobotanist best known for her social activism in the area of sexuality, Stopes was a pioneer in the fight to gain sexual equality for women. Her activism took many forms including writing books and pamphlets, giving public appearances, serving on panels, and, most famously, co-founding the first birth control clinic in the United Kingdom. 2008-07-10 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am