Title By Description Created Last modifiedsort descending
John von Neumann (1903-1957) Julia Damerow John von Neumann was a Hungarian mathematician who made important contributions to mathematics, physics, computer science, and the area of artificial life. He was born in Budapest, Hungary, on 28 December 1903. His mother was Margit von Neumann and his father was Max von Neumann. His work on artificial life focused on the problem of the self-reproduction of machines. Von Neumann initially discussed self-reproducing machines in his Hixon Symposium paper "The General and Logical Theory of Automata" published in 1948. 2010-06-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Thomas Hunt Morgan Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1920 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Oliver Allison Ryder III (1946– ) Karen Love, Renee Bailey Oliver Allison Ryder studied chromosomal evolution and endangered species in efforts for wildlife conservation and preservation at the San Diego Zoo in San Diego, California. Throughout his career, Ryder studied breeding patterns of endangered species. He collected and preserved cells, tissues, and DNA from endangered and extinct species to store in the San Diego Frozen Zoo, a center for genetic research and development in San Diego, California. 2017-09-14 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Dizhou Tong (1902-1979) Yawen Zou Dizhou Tong, also called Ti Chou Tung, studied marine animals and helped introduce and organize experimental embryology in China during the twentieth century. He introduced cellular nuclear transfer technology to the Chinese biological community, developed methods to clone organisms from many marine species, and investigated the role of cytoplasm in early development. Tong's administrative and scientific leadership in the fields of marine, cellular, and developmental biology contributed to China's experimental embryology research programs. 2014-02-18 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Landrum Brewer Shettles (1909-2003) Stephen C. Ruffenach Landrum Brewer Shettles is remembered as an important contributor to early in vitro fertilization research in the United States as well as a prolific author on the subject of choosing a child's sex before conception. Shettles was born in Pontotoc County, Mississippi on 21 November 1909 to Sue Mounce and Brazil Manly. Shettles trained and worked as a gynecologist at Columbia University Presbyterian Medical Center, after receiving his MD in 1943 from Johns Hopkins University. 2009-07-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Ross Granville Harrison (1870-1959) Kimberly A. Buettner A pioneer in experimental embryology, Ross Granville Harrison made numerous discoveries that advanced biology. One of the most significant was his adaptation of the hanging drop method from bacteriology to carry out the first tissue culture. This method allowed for further studies in embryology as well as experimental improvements in oncology, virology, genetics, and a number of other fields. 2007-09-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
William P. Procter taken at Columbia Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967) Kevin Gleason Hermann Joseph Muller studied the effects of x-ray radiation on genetic material in the US during the twentieth century. At that time, scientists had yet to determine the dangers that x-rays presented. In 1927, Muller demonstrated that x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can mutate the structure of genetic material. Muller warned others of the dangers of radiation, advising radiologists to protect themselves and their patients from radiation. He also opposed the indiscriminate use of radiation in medical and industrial fields. 2017-05-25 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Schrader, Sturtevant and Lancefield pitching horseshoes Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1921 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edgar Allen (1892–1943) Brendan Van Iten Edgar Allen identified and outlined the role of female sex hormones and discovered estrogen in the early 1900s in the US. In 1923, Allen, through his research with mice, isolated the primary ovarian hormone, later renamed estrogen, from ovarian follicles and tested its effect through injections in the uterine tissues of mice. Allen’s work on estrogen, enabled researchers to further study hormones and the endocrine system. 2017-07-23 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
George Richard Tiller (1941-2009) Mark Zhang George Richard Tiller, a doctor who performed abortions in Wichita, Kansas, was shot to death on 31 May 2009 by Scott Roeder. As the director of one of only a small number of clinics in the US that performed legal late-term abortions, Tiller was a target for anti-abortion activists. Though Tiller lived and worked in Kansas, his work agitated anti-abortion groups and fueled the controversy surrounding abortion at a national level. Tiller's life and death fueled the abortion debate in the US. 2012-07-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Norbert Freinkel (1926–1989) Blaise Castagnetti During the twentieth century, Norbert Freinkel studied hormones and diabetes in the US. Freinkel conducted many experiments that enabled him to determine the factors that influence hormones of the thyroid gland to bind to proteins and to determine the effects that those thyroid hormones have on surrounding tissues. Furthermore, Freinkel researched gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that occurs for the first time during a women’s pregnancy. That type of diabetes is caused by a change in the way a woman’s body responds to insulin, a hormone made in the body. 2018-01-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado (1964- ) Mary E. Sunderland Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado is a Professor of Neurobiology and Anatomy at the University of Utah School of Medicine and is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. Born in Caracas, Venezuela, 24 February 1964, Sánchez Alvarado left his home to pursue education in the United States, where he received a Bachelor of Science in molecular biology and chemistry from Vanderbilt University in 1986 and a Doctorate in pharmacology and cell biophysics at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine in 1992. 2010-06-10 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edward Sylvester Morse 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sheldon Clark Reed (1910-2003) Cassidy Possehl Sheldon Clark Reed helped establish the profession of genetic counseling in the US during the twentieth century. In 1947 Reed coined the term genetic counseling to describe the interaction of a doctor explaining to a patient the likelihood of passing a certain trait to their offspring. With physicians being able to test for genetic abnormalities like cystic fibrosis, Reed helped trained individuals give patients the tools to make informed decisions. In 1955 Reed published the book Counseling in Medical Genetics. 2017-06-10 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) Jonathan LaTourelle Petr Kropotkin proposed the theory of Pleistocene ice age, alternative theories of evolution based on embryology, and he advocated anarchist and communist social doctrines in Europe during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He traveled in eastern Siberia and Manchuria from 1863 until 1867, and his subsequent publications about that area's geography became authoritative until the middle of the twentieth century. 2015-06-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Lennart Nilsson (1922- ) Olivia Conley Lennart Nilsson is a world-renowned photojournalist recognized for his exploratory images of the inside of the human body. Throughout his career, Nilsson has received a great deal of publicity for his images documenting the human reproductive system and the morphology of viruses. His photography was the first to capture early human development and the developmental stages of embryos and fetuses. These images have helped shape the way the public visualizes development. 2010-06-24 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Edward B. Lewis (1918-2004) Adam R. Navis Edward B. Lewis studied embryonic development in Drosophila, including the discovery of the cis-trans test for recessive genes, and the identification of the bithorax complex and its role in development in Drosophila. He shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus for work on genetic control of early embryonic development. 2007-11-11 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
W. Dennis undated 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Carol Widney Greider (1961-) Zane Bartlett Carol Widney Greider studied telomeres and telomerase in the US at the turn of the twenty-first century. She worked primarily at the University of California, Berkeley in Berkeley, California. She received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009, along with Elizabeth Blackburn and Jack Szostak, for their research on telomeres and telomerase. Telomeres are repetitive sequences of 2015-01-26 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Karl Ernst von Baer (1792-1876) Kimberly A. Buettner Best known for his contributions to the field of embryology, Karl Ernst von Baer also pursued a variety of other areas of study including medicine, botany, zoology, and anthropology. Committing his life to scientific research, von Baer's work led to the advancement of the understanding of mammalian reproduction, development, and organ functioning. His embryological discoveries ultimately led him to a view of development that supported epigenesis and refuted long-held thinking about preformation. 2007-10-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Benjamin Harrison Willier (1890-1972) Karen Wellner Benjamin Harrison Willier is considered one of the most versatile embryologists to have ever practiced in the US. His research spanned most of the twentieth century, a time when the field of embryology evolved from being a purely descriptive pursuit to one of experimental research, to that of incorporating molecular biology into the research lab. Willier was born on 2 November 1890 near Weston, Ohio to Mary Alice Ricard. He spent his childhood doing farming chores and running the farm while his father, David Willier worked as a banker. 2010-06-28 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Nancy Wilson at the microscope Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Ernest John Christopher Polge (1926-2006) Renee Bailey Twentieth-century researcher Ernest John Christopher Polge studied the reproductive processes of livestock and determined a method to successfully freeze, thaw, and utilize viable sperm cells to produce offspring in animals. In 1949, Polge identified glycerol as a cryoprotectant, or a medium that enables cells to freeze without damaging their cellular components or functions. Several years later, Polge used glycerol in a freezing process called vitrification, which enabled him to freeze poultry sperm, thaw that sperm, and use it to fertilize vertebrate embryos. 2018-01-30 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673) Ellen M. Dupont Regnier de Graaf, a Dutch physician and anatomist, was born 30 July 1641 in Schoonhoven, the Netherlands. Though he published papers on both pancreatic and male reproductive anatomy, he is best known for his discovery of the mature ovarian follicles as well as his contributions to the general body of knowledge surrounding the female mammalian reproductive organs. 2008-09-30 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Benjamin Harrison Willier 1930-1934 or later 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
John Hunter (1728–1793) Nevada Wagoner John Hunter studied human reproductive anatomy, and in eighteenth century England, performed one of the earliest described cases of artificial insemination. Hunter dissected thousands of animals and human cadavers to study the structures and functions of organ systems. Much of his anatomical studies focused on the circulatory, digestive, and reproductive systems. He helped to describe the exchange of blood between pregnant women and their fetuses. Hunter also housed various natural collections, as well as thousands of preserved specimens from greater than thirty years of anatomy work. 2017-02-17 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Elie Metchnikoff) (1845-1916) Valerie Racine Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov studied phagocytes, immune function, and starfish embryos in Europe during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Mechnikov adopted the French form of his name, Élie Metchnikoff, in the last twenty-five years of his life. In 1908, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Ehrlich for their contributions to immunology. Mechnikov discovered phagocytes, immune cells that protect organisms by ingesting foreign particles or microorganisms, by conducting experiments on starfish larvae. 2014-07-05 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
John Charles Rock (1890-1984) Kimberly A. Buettner Born on 24 March 1890 in Marlborough, Massachusetts, to Ann and Frank Rock, John Charles Rock was both a devout Catholic and one of the leading investigators involved in the development of the first oral contraceptive pill. In 1925 he married Anna Thorndike, with whom he later had five children. He spent over thirty years of his career as a clinical professor of obstetrics at Harvard Medical School, and in 1964 the Center for Population Studies of the Harvard School of Public Health established the John Rock Professorship. 2007-11-08 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860-1948) Mark A. Ulett Known by many for his wide-reaching interests and keen thinking, D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson was one of Britain's leading scientific academics in the first few decades of the twentieth century. A prodigious author, Thompson published some 300 papers, books, and articles in the biological sciences, classics, oceanography, and mathematics. He was a famous lecturer and conversationalist-a true "scholar-naturalist," as his daughter wrote in her biography of her father. 2010-06-29 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
1895 Course Photographs, Students & Faculty Baldwin Coolidge 1895 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865) Safiya Shaikh, Daniella Caudle Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis demonstrated that the use of disinfectants could reduce the occurrence of puerperal fever in patients in nineteenth century Austria. Puerperal fever is a bacterial infection that can occur in the uterine tract of women after giving birth or undergoing an abortion. Semmelweis determined that puerperal fever is contagious and argued that the unhygienic practices of physicians, like examining patients after performing autopsies, caused the spread of puerperal fever. 2017-04-06 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Rebecca and Donald Lancefield with Mary Huettner having a picnic Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1918 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Jan Swammerdam (1637-1680) Kimberly A. Buettner Jan Swammerdam, known as the founder of the preformation theory based on his extensive research on insect development, was born on 12 February 1637 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, to Baertje Jans Corvers and Jan Jacobszoon Swammerdam. He began medical school on 11 October 1661 at the University of Leiden. A few of his classmates included Regnier de Graaf, Frederik Ruysch, Niels Stensen (Nicolaus Steno), and Robertus Padtbrugge. Padtbrugge would later join the East India Company and send Swammerdam exotic animals. 2007-10-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Leonard Hayflick (1928- ) Zane Bartlett Leonard Hayflick studied the processes by which cells age during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the United States. In 1961 at the Wistar Institute in the US, Hayflick researched a phenomenon later called the Hayflick Limit, or the claim that normal human cells can only divide forty to sixty times before they cannot divide any further. Researchers later found that the cause of the Hayflick Limit is the shortening of telomeres, or portions of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that slowly degrade as cells replicate. 2014-07-20 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Thomas Hunt Morgan, children & friends at the Grand Central Station Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Henry Morgentaler (1923-2013) Sepehr Abdi-Moradi Henry Morgentaler was a physician who performed abortions, acted as a reproductive rights activist, and advocated for legal access to abortions in Canada during the twentieth century. In 1969, he opened his first abortion clinic in Canada and participated in the legal/court case of R v. Morgentaler (1988), which led Canada to decriminalize abortion. Morgentaler helped establish legal access to abortions for women in Canada and advocated for the protection of women's reproductive choices under the law. 2017-06-09 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Henry Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) Ellen M. DuPont Henry Havelock Ellis was born on 2 February 1859 at Croydon in Surrey, England, to Susannah Wheatley Ellis and Edward Peppen Ellis, a sea captain. A psychologist, essayist, and physician, he is best known for his contributions to the study of human sexuality and his support of sex education and women's rights. Ellis 's work catalyzed the revolution against repressive Victorian views of sexuality. 2008-07-22 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
August Krogh 1929 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Victor Jollos (1887-1941) B. R. Erick Peirson Victor Jollos studied fruit flies and microorganisms in Europe and the US, and he introduced the concept of Dauermodifikationen in the early 1900s. The concept of Dauermodifikationen refers to environmentally-induced traits that are heritable for only a limited number of generations. Some scientists interpreted the results of Jollos's work on Paramecium and Drosophila as evidence for cytoplasmic inheritance. Jollos was forced to emigrate from Germany to the United States due to anti-semitic government policies in 2014-09-16 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Andrew Zachary Fire (1959- ) Catherine May Andrew Zachary Fire is a professor at Stanford University and Nobel Laureate. Fire worked at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Embryology in Baltimore, Maryland, with colleague Craig Mello, where they discovered that RNA molecules could be used to turn off or knock out the expression of genes. Fire and Mello called the process RNA interference (RNAi), and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery. 2011-11-28 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
James David Ebert (1921-2001) Sheraden Seward James David Ebert studied the developmental processes of chicks and of viruses in the US during the twentieth century. He also helped build and grow many research institutions, such as the Department of Embryology in the Carnegie Institution of Washington in Baltimore, Maryland and the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. When few biologists studied the biochemistry of embryos, Ebert built programs and courses around the foci of biochemistry and genetics, especially with regards to embryology. 2008-09-12 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Nobska Lighthouse Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1918 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Lester G. Barth 1929-1935 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Andrew Francis Dixon (1868-1936) S. Alexandra Aston Andrew Francis Dixon studied human anatomy and egg cells at the turn of the twentieth century in Ireland and Great Britain. Dixon studied the sensory and motor nervous system of the face, the cancellous bone tissue of the femur, supernumerary kidneys, and the urogenital system. In 1927 Dixon described a mature human ovarian follicle. This follicle, Dixon noted, contained an immature human egg cell (oocyte) with a visible first polar body and the beginnings of the second polar body. 2014-04-01 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Abraham Trembley (1710-1784) Mary E. Sunderland Abraham Trembley's discovery of the remarkable regenerative capacity of the hydra caused many to question their beliefs about the generation of organisms. Born 3 September 1710 to a prominent Geneva family, Trembley studied at the Calvin Institute, now the University of Geneva, where he completed his thesis on calculus. He went on to become tutor for Count William Bentinck's two sons, and it was while teaching the boys natural history that Trembley came across a strange organism in a sample of pond water. 2007-10-31 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
James Marion Sims (1813-1883) Amanda Andrei James Marion Sims developed a surgical cure for ruptures of the wall separating the bladder from the vagina during labor, ruptures called vesico-vaginal fistulas, and he developed techniques and tools used to improve reproductive examinations and health care for women in the US during the nineteenth century. Sims's lateral examination position allowed doctors to better see the vaginal cavity, and his speculum, a spoon-like object used for increased view into the vagina, helped to make gynecological examinations more thorough. 2013-04-08 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
William P. Procter in car in front of Old Main Building Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner 1923 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Alfred Henry Sturtevant (1891–1970) Kevin Gleason Alfred Henry Sturtevant studied heredity in fruit flies in the US throughout the twentieth century. From 1910 to 1928, Sturtevant worked in Thomas Hunt Morgan’s research lab in New York City, New York. Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. In 1913, as an undergraduate, Sturtevant created one of the earliest genetic maps of a fruit fly chromosome, which showed the relative positions of genes along the chromosome. 2017-05-20 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am
Horace W. Feldman 1926 4 Jul 2018 - 4:40:59am