People and Places
Filter by Topic
- (-) Remove People filter People
- Organizations (64) Apply Organizations filter
- Reproduction (59) Apply Reproduction filter
- Places (26) Apply Places filter
- Religion (15) Apply Religion filter
- Ethics (11) Apply Ethics filter
- Disorders (10) Apply Disorders filter
- Technologies (10) Apply Technologies filter
- Outreach (6) Apply Outreach filter
- Experiments (5) Apply Experiments filter
- Legal (4) Apply Legal filter
- Publications (4) Apply Publications filter
- Processes (3) Apply Processes filter
- Reproductive Health Arizona (3) Apply Reproductive Health Arizona filter
- Theories (2) Apply Theories filter
- RHAZ (1) Apply RHAZ filter
Filter by Format
Ina May Gaskin (1940– )
By Megan O’Reilly
Ina May Gaskin is a certified professional midwife, or CPM, in the US during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. She worked at the Farm Midwifery Center in Summertown, Tennessee, a center well known for its low rates of intervention, which contributed to low rates of maternal and fetal mortality. One technique Gaskin used when assisting women with delivery helped resolve a complication called shoulder dystocia, which is when a part of the infant’s body is delivered, but the rest of the body is stuck in the birth canal.
Otto Rank (1884–1939)
By Carrie Keller
Otto Rank studied how birth impacts individuals’ psychology and creates anxiety throughout their lives in Europe and the US during the nineteenth century. In his book The Trauma of Birth, Rank stated that birth was extremely traumatic and that one spent his or her whole life trying to recover from the experience of being born and harshly separated from the peaceful womb. He argued that the trauma experienced at birth is the source of all human suffering and the key to understanding anxiety later in life.
Karl Freiherr von Rokitansky (1804–1878)
By Emily Santora
During the nineteenth century, Karl Freiherr von Rokitansky conducted research on the causes of disease by performing approximately 30,000 autopsies, a practice that many people opposed at the time. Rokitansky performed his research in pathology, or the study of disease, and morbid anatomy, or the study of dead bodies, in Vienna, then part of the Austrian Empire and later part of Austria.
Gail Roberta Martin (1944– )
By Lance Villarreal
In the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, Gail Roberta Martin specialized in biochemistry and embryology, more specifically cellular communication and the development of organs. In 1981, she named any cell taken from inside a human embryo at the blastocyst stage an “embryonic stem cell”. During development, an embryo goes through the blastocyst stage just before it implants in the uterus. Embryonic stem cells are useful for experiments because they are self-renewing and able to develop into almost any cell type in the body.
Thomas Raphael Verny (1936– )
By Carrie Keller
During the twentieth century, Thomas Raphael Verny studied the way that environment affects a developing fetus’s character and psychological development. Verny studied the concept of memory before birth and covered both the prenatal and perinatal periods, meaning the time the fetus is in the womb and the weeks immediately before or after birth, respectively. During those times, Verny claimed that patterns of maternal attitudes and experiences, such as affection and stress-related emotions, impact the development of the child.
“Use of reproductive technology for sex selection for nonmedical reasons” (2015), by the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine
By Alysse Blight
In June 2015, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, or ASRM, published “Use of reproductive technology for sex selection for nonmedical reasons” in Fertility and Sterility. In the report, the Committee presents arguments for and against the use of reproductive technology for sex selection for any reason besides avoiding sex-linked disorders, or genetic disorders that only affect a particular sex.
Alfred Day Hershey (1908–1997)
By Victoria Hernandez
During the twentieth century in the United States, Alfred Day Hershey studied phages, or viruses that infect bacteria, and experimentally verified that genes were made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Genes are molecular, heritable instructions for how an organism develops. When Hershey started to study phages, scientists did not know if phages contained genes, or whether genes were made of DNA or protein. In 1952, Hershey and his research assistant, Martha Chase, conducted phage experiments that convinced scientists that genes were made of DNA.
Dr. Sturtevant Collecting
By Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner, b. 1884
William Emerson Ritter
J. Francis MacBride