Displaying 1 - 8 of 8 items.

Test-Tube Baby

“Test-tube baby” is a term used to refer to a baby produced through artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization, also called IVF. During artificial insemination, a physician injects carefully selected sperm into a women’s uterus to fertilize her eggs. During IVF, a trained professional harvests eggs from a female donor. Those eggs are fertilized with carefully selected sperm in a petri dish.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Processes

Rh Incompatibility in Pregnancy

Rh factor is a protein found on the outside of Rh-positive red blood cells. Rh incompatibility during pregnancy occurs when an Rh-negative mother is pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus. During delivery, the fetus' Rh-positive blood is introduced into the mother’s body. The Rh-negative mother’s body begins to produce antibodies that attack and kill Rh-positive blood cells. Since the crossover of blood normally occurs during delivery, an Rh-negative woman’s first pregnancy is normally not affected.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Processes

Virginia Apgar (1909–1974)

During the mid-twentieth century, Virginia Apgar worked as an obstetrical anesthesiologist and gave drugs to women that reduced their pain during childbirth in the US. In 1953, Apgar created a scoring system, called the Apgar score, that uses five measurements, including heart rate and breathing rate. The Apgar score evaluates newborn infants and determines who needs immediate medical attention. Apgar's work helped decrease infant mortality rates. As of 2020, hospitals around the world use the Apgar score.

Format: Graphics

Subject: People

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Strains 6 and 11 and Strains 16 and 18

Human Papillomavirus, or HPV, is a viral pathogen that most commonly spreads through sexual contact. HPV strains 6 and 11 normally cause genital warts, while HPV strains 16 and 18 commonly cause cervical cancer, which causes cancerous cells to spread in the cervix. Physicians can detect those HPV strains, using a Pap smear, which is a diagnostic test that collects cells from the female cervix.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Theories, Disorders

Neurospora crassa

Neurospora crassa is a red mold that scientists use to study genetics. N. crassa commonly grows on bread as shown in the top left corner of this figure. To culture the mold in lab, researchers grow it in glassware such as test tubes, Erlenmeyer flasks, and petri dishes, as shown in the top right corner of the figure. In the glassware, researchers place a gel, called a medium, of agar, sucrose, salts, and vitamins. The mold grows on the medium, and cotton stoppers prevent anything from contaminating the mold.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Organisms

The First Successful Cloning of a Gaur (2000), by Advanced Cell Technology

The first successful cloning of a gaur in 2000 by Advanced Cell Technology involved the cells of two animals: an egg cell from a domestic cow and a skin cell from a gaur. The researchers extracted the egg cell from the ovary of the domestic cow and the skin cell from the skin of the gaur. First, the researchers performed nuclear transplantation on the egg cell of the cow, during which they removed the nucleus of the egg cell. The mitochondria of the egg cell remained intact inside the cell.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Experiments, Organisms, Reproduction


The figure depicts three different molecular structures of estrogen found in mammals’ that differ by the arrangement of bonds and side groups. The molecular structures of the three estrogen molecules differ by the arrangement of chemical bonds and side groups attached to the core steroid structure, cholesterol, which contains three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Theories, Processes, Reproduction

Beadle and Tatum's 1941 Experiments with Neurospora Revealed that Genes Produce Enzymes

This illustration shows George Beadle and Edward Tatum's experiments with Neurospora crassa that indicated that single genes produce single enzymes. The pair conducted the experiments at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, reactions that produce a number of things, including nutrients that the cell needs. Neurospora crassa is a species of mold that grows on bread.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Theories, Experiments