Priscilla White (1900–1989)
Priscilla White studied the treatment of diabetes in
mothers, pregnant women, and children during the twentieth century in
the United States. White began working with children with Type 1 diabetes in
1924 at Elliott Proctor Joslin’s practice in Boston, Massachusetts.
Type 1 diabetes is an incurable disease where the pancreas produces
little to no insulin. Insulin is a hormone
that allows the body to
use sugar from food for energy and store sugars for future use.
Joslin and White authored many publications on children and
diabetes, in 1952, White helped Joslin found the Joslin Center. White
noted that many of the children with whom she worked also had parents with the disease.
focused on diabetic pregnant women and female children with diabetes.
White implemented the technique of delivering infants of diabetic
HIP Randomized Breast Cancer Screening Trial (1963–1982)
From 1963 to 1982, researchers in New York City, New York, carried
out a randomized trial of mammography screening. Mammography is the use
of X-ray technology to find breast cancer at early stages. The private
insurance company Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, or HIP,
collaborated with researchers Sam Shapiro, Philip Strax, and Louis Venet
on the trial. The researchers’ goal was to determine whether mammography
screening reduced breast cancer mortality in women. The study included
sixty thousand women aged forty to sixty-four. Half of the women
received two annual breast examinations that involved mammography, a
breast exam, and an interview. The rest of the women were not invited
for annual examinations. After follow up, the researchers found that of