“Miscarriage of Medicine: The Growth of Catholic Hospitals and the Threat to Reproductive Health Care” (2013), by Lois Uttley, Sheila Reynertson, Larraine Kenny, and Louise Melling
In 2013, Lois Uttley, Sheila Reynertson, Larraine Kenny, and Louise Melling published “Miscarriage of Medicine: The Growth of Catholic Hospitals and the Threat to Reproductive Health Care,” in which they analyzed the growth of Catholic hospitals in the United States from 2001 to 2011 and the impact those hospitals had on reproductive health care. In the US, Catholic hospitals are required to abide by the US Catholic Church's Ethical Guidelines for Health Care Providers, also called the Directives.
40 Weeks (2014)
In 2014, Big Belli, a media and social networking brand, released a documentary called 40 Weeks
online. The documentary, directed by Christopher Henze, follows multiple women during their pregnancies. The film predominantly features three women, though it includes the stories of many. Throughout the film, women detail their accounts of physical and emotional changes that occurred during their pregnancies. 40 Weeks
provides viewers with information about different aspects of pregnancy
including the importance of nutrition and hydration, knowledge about safe medications, and the possible complications that can affect a pregnant woman and her fetus
Jesse Bennett (1769–1842)
Jesse Bennett, sometimes spelled Bennet, practiced medicine in the US during the late eighteenth century and performed one of the first successful cesarean operations, later called cesarean sections, in 1794. Following complications during his wife’s childbirth, Bennett made an incision through her lower abdomen and uterus
to deliver their infant. Bennett’s biographers report that his operation was the first cesarean section where both the pregnant woman and the infant survived. Previously, physicians used cesarean sections to save the fetus
from a pregnant woman who had already died during childbirth.
“Effects of Social Support During Parturition on Maternal and Infant Morbidity” (1986), by Marshall Klaus, John Kennell, Steven Robertson, and Roberto Sosa
In 1986, researchers Marshall Klaus, John Kennell, Steven Robertson, and Roberto Sosa in the United States published “Effects of Social Support During Parturition on Maternal and Infant Morbidity,” hereafter “Effects of Social Support...” in the British Medical Journal
. In that article, the authors describe their efforts to determine if the presence of a supportive companion during a pregnant woman’s labor, or parturition helped to either shorten her labor or reduce negative health outcomes for both mother and infant, also called morbidity.
US Food and Drug Administration’s Requirements on Content and Format for Labeling for Human Prescription Drugs Rule (1979)
The Food and Drug Administration’s Content and Format for Labeling for Human Prescription Drugs Rule, or the 1979 Labeling Rule, first assessed the risk of prescription drugs in pregnant women and fetuses. Prior to 1979, drug labels were only required to state true information, but there were no requirements for content or format. The 1979 Labeling Rule established a required format for all prescription drug labels, which included assigning drugs to a risk category for pregnant and lactating women. Those risk categories indicated what level of risk a drug posed to a pregnant woman, fetus
, or breastfeeding infant based on experimental and case studies.
Matthew Howard Kaufman (1942-2013)
Matthew Kaufman was a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh
, in Edinburgh, UK, who specialized in mouse
anatomy, development, and embryology
during the late twentieth century. According to The Herald
, he was the first, alongside his colleague Martin Evans, to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells
. Researchers initially called those cells Evans-Kaufman cells. In 1992, Kaufman published The Atlas of Mouse Development
, a book that included photographs of mice and mice organ development.
Dana Louise Raphael (1926–2016)
Dana Louise Raphael was an anthropologist and breastfeeding
advocate in the US during the twentieth century. After she was unable
to breastfeed her own infant, Raphael began to research why
breastfeeding was more common in other cultures than in the US. As
part of that research, Raphael cofounded the Human Lactation Center,
where she studied the breastfeeding habits of mothers around the
world. Through that research, she coordinated with formula
manufacturers to educate women on the benefits of breastfeeding and
formula supplementation to reduce infant mortality in developing
nations. In addition, Raphael was the first person to use the word
doula to describe a childbirth support companion for laboring women.
Raphael was an advocate for the acceptance of breastfeeding around
the world, and asserted the importance of doula support for new
mothers in the form of breastfeeding education.
“Improving Women’s Health”: Section 3509 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010
In 2010, US Congress enacted section 3509 of the Patient
Protection and Affordable Care Act or ACA, to target issues
relating to women’s health. The ACA, signed into law by US
President Barack Obama
, aimed to increase people’s access to
high-quality healthcare in the United States. Section 3509,
titled “Improving Women’s Health,” established the Office on
Women’s Health within the US Department of Health and Human
Services and in four of its agencies, the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality, the Center for Disease Control and
Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration
, and the Health
Resources and Services Administration. Section 3509 of the ACA
Mammography or mastography is an imaging technology developed in
the twentieth century for the detection of breast cancer and other
breast abnormalities. Breast cancer is an abnormal growth in breast
tissue that can spread to other parts of the body and cause death.
Breast cancer affects about twelve percent of women worldwide. In the
twenty-first century, mammography is one of the most accurate tools
for screening and diagnosing breast cancer. A mammogram is the image
that is created after sending low-level X-rays through breast tissue while
a digital recorder captures the image. A radiologist
analyzes the mammogram to diagnose any abnormalities.
A Senographe is the instrument used to create the mammogram
to screen for breast cancer and other breast diseases. Mammography enabled physicians to
diagnose breast cancer in the early stages,
significantly decreasing the number of deaths from breast cancer.
The British Doctors’ Study (1951–2001)
From 1951 to 2001, researchers at the University of Oxford
Oxford, England, conducted the British Doctors’ Study, a study that
examined the smoking habits, disease rates, and mortality rates of
physicians in Britain. Two epidemiologists, scientists who study
occurrence and distribution of disease, Richard Doll and Austin
Bradford Hill, initiated the study, and statistician Richard Peto
joined the team in 1971. The objective of the study was to assess the
risks associated with tobacco use, and its relationship to lung
cancer. The researchers tracked 34,439 male doctors practicing in
Britain, and recorded smoking habits, development of diseases
including lung cancer, other cancers, respiratory diseases,
cardiovascular diseases, and mortality rates. The researchers