“Perspectives on the Properties of Stem Cells” (2005), by Ernest McCulloch and James Till
In 2005, Ernest McCulloch and James Till published the article "Perspectives on the Properties of Stem Cells," which discusses the various properties and future possibilities for the use of stem cells
. Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can develop into several different cell types.
“The Impact of Emotional and Physical Violence During Pregnancy on Maternal and Child Health at One Year Post-partum” (2011), by Sarah McMahon, Chien-Chung Huang,
Paul Boxer, Judy L. Postmus
“Invasive and Non-invasive Methods for the Diagnosis of Endometriosis” (2010), by Albert L. Hsu, Izabella Khachikyan, and Pamela Stratton
In 2010, Albert L. Hsu, Izebella Khchikyan, and Pamela Stratton published “Invasive and Non-invasive Methods for the Diagnosis of Endometriosis,” henceforth “Methods for the Diagnosis of Endometriosis,” in Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
. In the article, the authors describe how specific types of endometriotic lesions appear in the body and evaluate five methods for diagnosing endometriosis
“Impact of Air Pollution on Reproductive Health” (1999), by Radim Srám
Radim Srám is a scientist who as of 2019 studies public health and genetics at the Department of Genetic Toxicology and Nanotoxicology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Academy of Sciences in Prague, Czech Republic. As of 2019, the institute is known as the Institute of Experimental Medicine CAS. In 1977, Srám earned his doctorate for his work on the genetic risks of certain mutagens, or chemicals, and how they cause mutations in genetic material, or DNA. From 1991 to 2013, Srám focused his research on the effects of polluted environments on human health in Prague, Czech Republic.
Zidovudine or azidothymidine
In 1964, Jerome Horwitz synthesized the drug zidovudine, commonly abbreviated ZDV, otherwise known as azidothymidine, or AZT, at Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit, Michigan. Horwitz and his colleagues originally developed zidovudine to treat cancers caused by retroviruses. In 1983, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
recipients Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier
discovered a new retrovirus
, the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France.
Ina May Gaskin (1940– )
On 8 March 1940, Gaskin was born to Ruth Stinson and Talford Middleton in Marshalltown, Iowa. Gaskin was her parents’ second child, with an older brother and two younger sisters. Her grandmother ran an orphanage, so Gaskin grew up on farms and was surrounded by children at a young age. Her mother taught home economics, and her father was a farmer first but later became a salesman. Gaskin’s brother died in a gun accident when he was fifteen. In an interview, Gaskin said the accident taught her compassion and the importance of grieving after the loss of a loved one. Gaskin attended Marshalltown High School in Marshalltown, Iowa.
Menstrupedia Comic: The Friendly Guide to Periods for Girls (2014), by Aditi Gupta, Tuhin Paul, and Rajat Mittal
Menstrupedia published the comic book Menstrupedia Comic: The Friendly Guide to Periods for Girls
, hereafter Menstrupedia Comic
, in July 2014 in India. Aditi Gupta, the founder of Menstrupedia and a women’s health activist, wrote Menstrupedia Comic while studying at the National Institute of Design in Gujarat, India, in 2013. Gupta worked alongside her husband, graphic designer Tuhin Paul, who provided the illustrations for the book. According to Menstrupedia, misconceptions and taboo surrounding menstruation
in India prompted Gupta to develop the book.
Menstrual tampons are feminine hygiene devices, usually made of absorbent cotton, that are temporarily inserted into the vagina
for absorbing a woman’s blood during menstruation
. In 1931, Earl Haas invented the menstrual tampon most commonly used in the twenty-first century. Later, Gertrude Tendrich produced the first commercial tampon brand, Tampax, using Haas’s patented design. Tendrich and Haas’s tampon was made of tightly compacted absorbent cotton, shaped like a bullet, and had a string attached at the base that allowed for easy removal from the woman’s body. Some tampons had a plastic or cardboard applicator, while other digital tampons could be inserted with a finger.
The Impact of the Safe Motherhood Initiative from 1987 to 2000
In 1987, the World Health Organization, or WHO, took action to improve the quality of maternal health around the world through the declaration of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, or the SMI, at an international conference concerning maternal mortality in Nairobi, Kenya. Initially, the SMI aimed to reduce the prevalence of maternal mortality around the world, as over 500,000 women died during pregnancy
and childbirth annually at the time of its inception, while about 98 percent of those deaths occurred in low-income countries. While WHO led the initiative, many organizations in various countries participated in additional programs in order to implement the goals of the SMI.
“Annual Research Review: Prenatal Stress and the Origins of Psychopathology: An Evolutionary Perspective” (2011), by Vivette Glover
In 2011, fetal researcher Vivette Glover published “Annual Research Review: Prenatal Stress and the Origins of Psychopathology: An Evolutionary Perspective,” hereafter, “Prenatal Stress and the Origins of Psychopathology,” in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
. In that article, Glover explained how an evolutionary perspective may be useful in understanding the effects of fetal programming. Fetal programming is a hypothesis that attempts to explain how factors during pregnancy
can affect fetuses after birth. Researchers associate exposure to prenatal stress, or stress experienced before birth, with an increased likelihood of some mental disorders.