The Milky Way (2014)
On 26 April 2014, Gravitas Ventures released the documentary The Milky Way
, a film directed by Jon Fitzgerald that compares breastfeeding in the US with breastfeeding in European countries. The film was produced by Piece of My Heart Productions and Cause Pictures. In the film, producers Jennifer Davidson and Chantal Molnar travel to Berlin, Germany, and Stockholm, Sweden, to observe how people perceive breastfeeding there, compared to in the US. Breastfeeding provides multiple benefits to both the infant and mother, including infants developing a healthy immune system and mothers recovering from birth at an increased rate. The film shows how women in the US are inhibited by limited maternity leave compared to women in European countries.
MicroSort, developed in 1990 by the Genetics and IVF Institute, is a form of pre-conception
sex selection technology for humans
. Laboratories located around the world use MicroSort technology to help couples increase their chances of conceiving a child of their desired sex. MicroSort separates male sperm
cells based on which sex chromosome they contain, which results in separated semen
samples that contain a higher percentage of sperm
cells that carry the same sex chromosome.
“Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types: Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III” (1944), by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty
In 1944, Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty published an article in which they concluded that genes
, or molecules that dictate how organisms develop, are made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
“Consensus on the Current Management of Endometriosis” (2013), by Neil P. Johnson and Lone Hummelshoj
“Consensus on the Current Management of Endometriosis”, henceforth “Consensus”, was written by the World Endometriosis Society, or WES, president Neil P. Johnson and chief executive Lone Hummelshoj and published in 2013 in Human Reproduction
. “Consensus” makes recommendations about managing endometriosis
for women and healthcare professionals.
The Hershey-Chase Experiments (1952), by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
In 1951 and 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase conducted a series of experiments at the Carnegie Institute of Washington in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, that verified genes
were made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Hershey and Chase performed their experiments, later named the Hershey-Chase experiments, on viruses that infect bacteria, also called bacteriophages. The experiments followed decades of scientists’ skepticism about whether genetic material was composed of protein or DNA. The most well-known Hershey-Chase experiment, called the Waring Blender experiment, provided concrete evidence that genes
were made of DNA.
Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home (1925–1961)
Between 1925 and 1961, a Roman Catholic order of nuns called the Bon Secours Sisters operated the Bon Secours Mother and Baby Home, or the Home, an institution where unmarried pregnant women gave birth in Tuam, Ireland. Pregnant women who delivered their infants at the Home were required to work at the Home for no less than one year without pay. The Irish government and the Catholic Church endorsed the Mother and Baby Home as a means to limit the number of children born out of wedlock by discouraging women from getting pregnant before marriage. During the Home’s thirty-six years of operation, the nuns reported that almost 800 children died in their care. In 2015, researchers discovered a tomb of 796 infant and child skeletons in a septic tank underneath where the Home once stood.
Vegas Baby (2016)
In 2016, Runaway Films released the documentary Vegas Baby
. The film, directed by Amanda Micheli, follows three women who struggle with infertility
problems as they undergo in vitro fertilization
, or IVF treatment, to become pregnant. In IVF treatment, a woman’s egg
is fertilized by a sperm
outside of the woman’s body.
Hormone Releasing Intrauterine Devices
Hormone releasing intrauterine devices or hormonal IUDs are contraceptive devices placed in a woman’s uterus
to prevent pregnancy
by continuously releasing a low dose of certain hormones
. Jouri Valter Tapani Luukkainen, a medical researcher at the University of Helsinki, introduced the first hormonal IUD in 1976. Luukkainen’s IUD was a plastic device shaped like a capital T.
William Thomas Astbury (1898–1961)
William Thomas Astbury studied the structures of fibrous materials, including fabrics, proteins, and deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, in England during the twentieth century. Astbury employed X-ray crystallography, a technique in which scientists use X-rays to learn about the molecular structures of materials. Astbury worked at a time when scientists had not yet identified DNA’s structure or function in genes
, the genetic components responsible for how organisms develop and reproduce. He was one of the first scientists to use X-ray crystallography to study the structure of DNA. According to historians, Astbury helped establish the field of molecular biology as he connected microscopic changes in the structure of materials to changes in their large-scale properties.