Matthew Howard Kaufman (1942-2013)
Matthew Kaufman was a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh
, in Edinburgh, UK, who specialized in mouse
anatomy, development, and embryology
during the late twentieth century. According to the The Herald
, he was the first, alongside his colleague Martin Evans, to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells
. Researchers initially called those cells Evans-Kaufman cells. In 1992, Kaufman published The Atlas of Mouse Development
, a book that included photographs of mice development and mice organs over time.
Physician Labeling Rule (2006)
In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration
, or FDA, published the “Requirements on Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products,” also called the Physician Labeling Rule, to improve the safety and efficacy of prescription drugs and drug products. Within the Physician Labeling Rule, the FDA includes a section titled “Use in Specific Populations” or Section 8, which refers to drugs used by pregnant women, lactating women, and people of reproductive capacity. The FDA stated that the purpose of the Physician Labeling Rule was to make drug labels easier for physicians to understand and use when prescribing drugs to pregnant women.
Marshall Henry Klaus (1927–2017)
Marshall Henry Klaus was a scientist and pediatrician who studied maternal-infant bonding in the twentieth century in the United States. Maternal-infant bonding is the psychological and chemical attachment between mother and infant. Klaus cofounded DONA International, an organization
that trains birthing aides, called doulas, to provide physical and emotional support to laboring mothers. He also studied the differences between the layouts and quality of care provided in nurseries and birthing centers in different countries and compared them to those found in the United States. Klaus’s study influenced national and international initiatives to create hospital policies focused on promoting early bonding between mother and infant.
David Michael Rorvik (1944–)
David Michael Rorvik is a science journalist who publicized advancements in the field of reproductive medicine during the late twentieth century. Rorvik wrote magazine articles and books in which he discussed emerging methods and technologies that contributed to the progression of reproductive health, including sex determination
, in vitro fertilization
, and human cloning
. During that time, those topics were controversial and researchers often questioned Rorvik’s work for accuracy.
Copper Intrauterine Device (IUD)
The copper intrauterine device, or IUD, is a long-term, reversible contraceptive first introduced by Howard Tatum and Jamie Zipper in 1967. Health care providers place an IUD inside a woman’s uterus
to prevent pregnancy
. Copper IUDs are typically made of T-shaped plastic with some portion covered with exposed copper. Prior to the invention of the first IUDs, women had few long-term options for safe and reliable birth control
. Those options mostly consisted of barrier methods and the oral birth control
pill, which were only effective if used correctly and consistently.
Roe v. Wade (1973)Editor's Note
: This article replaces the previous
article on this topic, which was published in this encyclopedia
in 2008. The 2008 article may be found here.