Sir John Bertrand Gurdon further developed nuclear transplantation, the technique used to clone organisms and to create stem cells, while working in Britain in the second half of the twentieth century.
Telomeres are bits of DNA on the ends of chromosomes that protect chromosomes from sticking to each other or tangling, which could cause DNA to abnormally function. As cells replicate, telomeres shorten at the end of chromosomes, and this process
In 2007, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority in London, UK, published "Hybrids and Chimeras: A Report on the Findings of the Consultation", which summarized a public debate about research on, and suggested policy for, human animal chimeras.
In 2004, a team of researchers at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, investigated the fetal cells that remained in the maternal blood stream after pregnancy. The results were published in "Transfer of Fetal Cells with Multilineage Potential to Maternal Tissue." The team working on that
To educate its citizens about research into chimeras made from human and non-human animal cells, the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation Embryology Authority published the consultation piece "Hybrids and Chimeras: A Consultation on the Ethical and Social Implications of Creating Human/Animal Embryos in Research," in 2007.
Keith Henry Stockman Campbell studied embryo growth and cell differentiation during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the UK. In 1995, Campbell and his scientific team used cells grown and differentiated in a laboratory to clone sheep for the first time.
“On the Permanent Life of Tissues outside of the Organism” reports Alexis Carrel's 1912 experiments on the maintenance of tissue in cul