In 2000, Catherine Monk, William Fifer, Michael Myers, Richard Sloan, Leslie Trien, and Alicia Hurtado published “Maternal stress responses and anxiety during pregnancy: Effects on fetal heart rate,” hereafter "Maternal stress: Effects on f
2. Fetal Surgery
3. Ethics, Decision Making, and Patient Status
4. Regulations and Oversight Groups
Johann Friedrich Meckel and Antoine Etienne Reynaud Augustin Serres developed in the early 1800s the basic principles of what later became called the Meckel-Serres Law. Meckel and Serres both argued that fetal deformities result when development prematurely stops, and they
Fetal surgeries are a range of medical interventions performed in utero on the developing fetus of a pregnant woman to treat a number of congential abnormalities. The first documented fetal surgical procedure occurred in 1963 in Auckland, New Zealand when A. William Liley treated fetal hemolytic anemia, or Rh disease, with a blood transfusion.
Fetus in fetu is a rare variety of parasitic twins, where the developmentally abnormal parasitic twin is completely encapsulated within the torso of the otherwise normally developed host twin.
In Australia in the 1940s, Norman McAlister Gregg observed a connection between pregnant women who contracted the rubella virus, or German measles, and cataract formation in their children's eyes. Gregg published his findings in the 1941 article "Congenital Cataract following German Measles in the Mother" in Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Australia.
In his 1991 article "Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism," Delbert A. Fisher in the US reported on the implementation and impact of mass neonatal screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) from the early 1970s through 1991. CH is a condition that causes stunted mental and physical development in newborns unless treatment begins within the first three months of the newborn's life.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in children whose mothers contract the rubella virus, sometimes called German measles, during pregnancy. Depending on the gestational period when the mother contracts rubella, an infant born with CRS may be unaffected by the virus or it may have severe developmental defects.
"Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans," was published in 1993 in Environmental Health Perspectives.