James M. Cummins published "The Role of Maternal Mitochondria during Oogenesis, Fertilization and Embryogenesis" 30 January 2002 in the journal Reproductive BioMedicine Online. In the article, Cummins examines the role of the energy producing cytoplasmic particles, organelles called mitochondria.
Francis Harry Compton Crick, who co-discovered the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 1953 in Cambridge, England, also developed The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, and further clarified the relationship between nucleotides and protein synthesis.
Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, commonly known as Geoffroy, studied animals, their anatomy and their embryos, and teratogens at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Among other functions, the Notch signaling prevents the differentiation of muscle progenitor cells into mature muscle in animals. The Notch signaling pathway is a pathway in animals by which two adjacent cells within an organism use a protein named Notch to mechanically interact with each other.
“On the Permanent Life of Tissues outside of the Organism” reports Alexis Carrel's 1912 experiments on the maintenance of tissue in cul
Johann Friedrich Meckel and Antoine Etienne Reynaud Augustin Serres developed in the early 1800s the basic principles of what later became called the Meckel-Serres Law. Meckel and Serres both argued that fetal deformities result when development prematurely stops, and they
A germ layer is a group of cells in an embryo that interact with each other as the embryo develops and contribute to the formation of all organs and tissues. All animals, except perhaps sponges, form two or three germ layers.