Arthur W. Galston studied plant hormones in the United States during the late-twentieth century. His dissertation on the flowering process of soybean plants led others to develop Agent Orange, the most widely employed herbicide during the Vietnam War, used to defoliate forests and eliminate enemy cover and food sources. Galston protested the spraying of those defoliants in
In the legal case In re Agent Orange Product Liability Litigation of the early 1980s, US military veterans of the Vietnam War sued the US chemical companies that had produced the herbicide Agent Orange, and those companies settled with US veterans out of court.
In 1984, J. David Erickson and his research team published the results of a study titled "Vietnam Veterans' Risks for Fathering Babies with Birth Defects" that indicated that Vietnam veterans were at increased risk of fathering infants with serious congenital
Matthew Stanley Meselson conducted DNA and RNA research in the US during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. He also influenced US policy regarding the use of chemical and biological weapons. Meselson and his colleague Franklin Stahl demonstrated that DNA replication is semi-conservative. Semi-conservative replication means that every newly replicated DNA double helix, which consists of two individual DNA
Spina bifida is a birth defect that affects the spines of developing fetuses and infants, and research in the 20th century indicated that chemicals in the herbicide Agent Orange likely led to the birth defect. People with spina bifida can have nerve damage, paralysis, and mental disabilities. During the Vietnam War in the 1960s, the US military employed Agent Orange and other herbicides to
Editor's Note: This article replaces the previous article on this topic, which was published in this encyclopedia in 2012. The 2012 article may be found at http://hdl.handle.net/10776/4202.
In March 1996, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States released "Veterans and Agent Orange Update 1996: Summary and Research Highlights," which summarized research on the health