Historically the exact age of human embryo specimens has long perplexed embryologists. With the menstrual history of the mother often unknown or not exact, and the premenstrual and postmenstrual phases varying considerably among women, age sometimes came down to a best guess based on the weight and size of the embryo.
Carnegie Institution of Washington
As the third director of the
James David Ebert studied the developmental processes of chicks and of viruses in the US during the twentieth century.
Osborne O. Heard was a noted Carnegie embryological model maker for the
As one of the first to work at the
The Carnegie Institution of Washington’s (CIW) Embryology Department was opened in 1914 and remains one of six departments in the CIW. The department quickly became, and remains, world renown for its many embryonic development discoveries. In 1913
Physician and pathologist Elizabeth Maplesden Ramsey was a member of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW) for thirty-nine years. The affiliation began in 1934, when Ramsey discovered what was assumed to be the youngest-known embryo at the time, and donated it to CIW’s massive embryo collection. After studying embryos, Ramsey focused her research on placental circulation in primates.
Andrew Zachary Fire is a professor at Stanford University and Nobel Laureate. Fire worked at the Carnegie Institution of Washington’s Department of Embryology with colleague Craig Mello, where they discovered that RNA molecules could be used to turn off or knock out the expression of genes.