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Biological Sex and Gender in the United States

By: Risa Aria Schnebly | Published: Jun 13, 2022

In the United States, most people are assigned both a biological sex and gender at birth based on their chromosomes and reproductive organs. However…

GenderGender-nonconforming peopleGender transitionGender expressionGender Nonconformity

“Use of reproductive technology for sex selection for nonmedical reasons” (2015), by the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine

By: Alysse Blight | Published: May 27, 2019

In June 2015, the Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, or ASRM, published “Use of reproductive technology for sex…

LiteratureSex PreselectionFertilization in VitroReproductive technologyHuman reproductive technology

Gender-affirming Mastectomy

By: Riley McInnis | Published: Nov 10, 2022

Gender-affirming mastectomy is a type of surgery that removes breast tissue, tightens the skin, and can adjust nipple placement to provide the…

TechnologyTransgender menTransgender youthTransgender ChildrenTransphobia

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

By: Mary Drago | Published: Jun 05, 2014

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a human disorder in which an individual's genetic sex (genotype) differs from that individual's observable…

AndrogensAndrogens--PathophysiologyIntersexualityIntersex peopleAndrogen-Insensitivity Syndrome

Your Baby’s Sex: Now You Can Choose (1970), by David M. Rorvik and Landrum B. Shettles

By: Alysse Blight | Published: Oct 31, 2019

In the book Your Baby’s Sex: Now You Can Choose, David Michael Rorvik and Landrum Brewer Shettles describe methods that couples can use prior to and…

LiteratureSex PreselectionSex PredeterminationFamily PlanningGender


By: Alysse Blight | Published: Jul 09, 2019

"MicroSort, developed in 1990 by the Genetics and IVF Institute, is a form of pre-conception sex selection technology for humans. Laboratories…

Technologyin vitroFertilization in vitro, HumanFertilization in VitroSperm donors

Social Implications of Non-Invasive Blood Tests to Determine the Sex of Fetuses

By: Ceara O'Brien | Published: Mar 23, 2014

By 2011, researchers in the US had established that non-invasive blood tests can accurately determine the gender of a human fetus as early as seven…

ContextDiagnostic sex determinationSex PreselectionFetusSex Determination Analysis

"The Adaptive Significance of Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination in a Reptile" (2008), by Daniel Warner and Richard Shine

By: Karla Moeller | Published: Oct 07, 2013

In 2008 researchers Daniel Warner and Richard Shine tested the Charnov-Bull model by conducting experiments on the Jacky dragon (Amphibolurus…

ExperimentsSex DifferentiationReproductionAdaptationfetal development

The Shettles Method of Sex Selection

By: Alysse Blight | Published: Apr 03, 2019

In the 1960s in the United States Landrum B. Shettles developed the Shettles method, which is a procedure for couples to use prior to and during an…

TechnologySex PreselectionSex PredeterminationFamily PlanningSex Chromosomes

Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex (1998), by Alice Domurat Dreger

By: Mary Drago | Published: Apr 09, 2014

Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex, by historian of science Alice Domurat Dreger, was published in 1998 by Harvard University Press. In…

LiteratureIntersex peopleGonads--DiseasesDisorders of Sex DevelopmentSex

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