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Edward Drinker Cope's Law of Acceleration of Growth

By: M. Elizabeth Barnes | Published: Jul 24, 2014

The Law of Acceleration of Growth is a theory proposed by Edward Drinker Cope in the US during the nineteenth century. Cope developed it in an…

developmentEvolutionCope, E. D. (Edward Drinker), 1840-1897Growth and Development

"Evolution and
Tinkering" (1977), by Francois Jacob

By: Valerie Racine | Published: Oct 24, 2014

In his essay Evolution and Tinkering, published in Science in 1977, Francois Jacob argued that a common analogy between the process of evolution by…

LiteratureInstitut Pasteur (Paris, France)OperonsGenetic regulationNobel Prizes

Ernst Haeckel's Biogenetic Law (1866)

By: M. Elizabeth Barnes | Published: May 03, 2014

The biogenetic law is a theory of development and evolution proposed by Ernst Haeckel in Germany in the 1860s. It is one of several recapitulation…

EvolutionDevelopmental BiologyEmbryologyAnatomy, Comparative

Essay: Homology

By: Ingo Brigandt | Published: Nov 23, 2011

Homology is a central concept of comparative and evolutionary biology, referring to the presence of the same bodily parts (e.g., morphological…

Homology (Biology)Morphology

Ontogeny and Phylogeny (1977), by Stephen Jay Gould

By: M. Elizabeth Barnes | Published: Oct 21, 2014

Ontogeny and Phylogeny is a book published in 1977, in which the author Stephen J. Gould, who worked in the US, tells a history of the theory of…

LiteratureEvolutionOntogenyEmbryologyMeckel, J. F. (Johann Friedrich), 1781-1833

Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin (1842-1921)

By: Jonathan LaTourelle | Published: Jun 01, 2015

Petr Kropotkin proposed the theory of Pleistocene ice age, alternative theories of evolution based on embryology, and he advocated anarchist and…

EvolutionHeredityInheritance of acquired charactersPaleogeography--PleistoceneAnarchism

Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002)

By: M. Elizabeth Barnes | Published: Feb 18, 2014

Stephen Jay Gould studied snail fossils and worked at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts during the latter half of the twentieth century…

Punctuated equilibrium (Evolution)Spandrel beamsOntogenyPhylogenyFossils

Brian K. Hall (1941- )

By: Editorial Team, EP | Published: Jul 07, 2009

Brian Hall is the son of Doris Garrad and Harry Hall, and was born in Port Kembla, NSW Australia, on 28 October 1941. He attended the University of…

Neural CrestBiography

"On the Origin of Mitosing Cells" (1967), by Lynn Sagan

By: Dorothy Regan Haskett | Published: Apr 15, 2014

On the Origin of Mitosing Cells by Lynn Sagan appeared in the March 1967 edition of the Journal of Theoretical Biology. At the time the article was…


Mechanistic Realization of the Turtle Shell

By: Guido Caniglia | Published: Oct 10, 2011

Turtle morphology is unlike that of any other vertebrate. The uniqueness of the turtle's bodyplan is attributed to the manner in which the turtle's…


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