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Johann Friedrich Meckel, the Younger (1781-1833)

By: Lindsey O'Connell | Published: Oct 11, 2013

Johann Friedrich Meckel studied abnormal animal and human anatomy in nineteenth century Germany in an attempt to explain embryological development.…

PeopleAnatomy, ComparativeEmbryologyBirth Defectsfetal development

Felix Anton Dohrn

By: Karen Wellner, Kal Clark, Brian Schuermann | Published: Feb 22, 2011

Felix Anton Dohrn is best remembered as the founder of the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, the world' s first permanent laboratory devoted to the study…


Jacques Loeb (1859-1924)

By: Steve Elliott | Published: Jun 10, 2009

Jacques Loeb experimented on embryos in Europe and the United States at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Among…


James G. Wilson's Six Principles of Teratology

By: S. Alexandra Aston | Published: May 23, 2014

James Graves Wilson's six principles of teratology, published in 1959, guide research on teratogenic agents and their effects on developing organisms…

TeratologyAbnormalities, HumanCongenital AbnormalitiesBirth DefectsCongenital Defects

Fate Mapping Techniques

By: Corinne DeRuiter | Published: Nov 19, 2010

For more than 2000 years, embryologists, biologists, and philosophers have studied and detailed the processes that follow fertilization. The…

TechnologyCell Lineage

Matthias Jacob Schleiden (1804–1881)

By: Sara Parker | Published: May 29, 2017

Matthias Jacob Schleiden helped develop the cell theory in Germany during the nineteenth century. Schleiden studied cells as the common element among…

Cell BiologyBotanyEpigenesisEmbryologyBiology, Experimental


By: Cera R. Lawrence | Published: Aug 13, 2008

Spermism was one of two models of preformationism, a theory of embryo generation prevalent in the late seventeenth through the end of the eighteenth…


"Genetic Programming: Artificial Nervous Systems, Artificial Embryos and Embryological Electronics" (1991), by Hugo de Garis

By: Julia Damerow | Published: Jun 10, 2010

In 1991, Hugo de Garis' article "Genetic Programming: Artificial Nervous Systems, Artificial Embryos and Embryological Electronics" was published in…


John Tyler Bonner (1920- )

By: Mary E. Sunderland | Published: May 09, 2008

The establishment and growth of developmental-evolutionary biology owes a great debt to the work of John Tyler Bonner. Bonner's studies of cellular…


August Antonius Rauber (1841-1917)

By: Maria Doty | Published: Jun 10, 2011

August Antonius Rauber was an embryologist and anatomist who examined gastrulation in avian embryos. He examined the formation of the blastopore,…


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