an embryo floating on a blue background


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Hamburger-Hamilton Staging Series (1951)

By: Maria Doty | Published: Jun 10, 2011

In 1951 Viktor Hamburger and Howard Hamilton created an embryonic staging series from a combination of photographs and drawings from other…


Developmental Timeline of Alcohol-Induced Birth Defects

By: Erica O'Neil | Published: Apr 24, 2011

Maternal consumption of alcohol (ethanol) during pregnancy can result in a continuum of embryonic developmental abnormalities that vary depending on…

fetal alcohol syndromeReproductionHuman Development

Fetal Programming

By: Carrie Keller | Published: Nov 03, 2020

Fetal programming, or prenatal programming, is a concept that suggests certain events occurring during critical points of pregnancy may cause…

Diabetes in pregnancyMaternal-Fetal ExchangeMetabolism in pregnancyMaternal-Fetal MedicineMothers--Nutrition

Karl Ernst von Baer's Laws of Embryology

By: M. Elizabeth Barnes | Published: Apr 15, 2014

In 1828, while working at the University of Konigsberg in Konigsberg, Germany Karl Ernst von Baer proposed four laws of animal development, which…

Baer, Karl Ernst von, 1792-1876EmbryologyAnatomy, Comparative

"The Development of the Turtle Carapace" (1989), by Ann Campbell Burke

By: Guido Caniglia | Published: Oct 20, 2011

Ann Campbell Burke examines the development and evolution of vertebrates, in particular, turtles. Her Harvard University experiments, described in…


"A Series of Normal Stages in the Development of the Chick Embryo" (1951), by Viktor Hamburger and Howard L. Hamilton

By: Adam R. Navis | Published: Oct 30, 2007

The developmental stages of the chick embryo were examined by Viktor Hamburger and Howard L. Hamilton in "A Series of Normal Stages in the…

Chick EmbryoExperimentsChicks

Viktor Hamburger's Study of Central-Peripheral Relations in the Development of Nervous System

By: Lijing Jiang | Published: Nov 19, 2010

An important question throughout the history of embryology is whether the formation of a biological structure is predetermined or shaped by its…

Hamburger, Viktor, 1900-2001ExperimentsNervous SystemCell Death

Essay: Homology

By: Ingo Brigandt | Published: Nov 23, 2011

Homology is a central concept of comparative and evolutionary biology, referring to the presence of the same bodily parts (e.g., morphological…

Homology (Biology)Morphology

The Cell in Development and Inheritance (1900), by Edmund Beecher Wilson

By: Jane Maienschein, Abhinav Mishra | Published: Jun 18, 2015

The Cell in Development and Inheritance, by Edmund Beecher Wilson, provided a textbook introduction to cell biology for generations of biologists in…

LiteratureCell organellesMitosisMeiosisCell Proliferation

“Fetal Programming and Adult Health” (2001), by Kevin M. Godfrey and David J.P. Barker

By: Carrie Keller | Published: Feb 01, 2021

In 2001, Kevin M. Godfrey and David J.P. Barker published the article “Fetal Programming and Adult Health” in Public Health Nutrition, where they…

LiteraturePregnancy--ComplicationsFetal heart--AbnormalitiesMaternal-Fetal ExchangeMetabolism in pregnancy

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