People

Camillo Golgi (1843–1926)

By Isra Mishqat

Camillo Golgi studied the central nervous system during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in Italy, and he developed a staining technique to visualize brain cells. Called the black reaction, Golgi’s staining technique enabled him to see the cellular structure of brain cells, called neurons, with much greater precision. Golgi also used the black reaction to identify structures within animal cells like the internal reticular apparatus that stores, packs, and modifies proteins, later named the Golgi apparatus in his honor.

Created 2017-02-23

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Karl Oskar Illmensee (1939–)

By Cheryl Lancaster

Karl Oskar Illmensee studied the cloning and reproduction of fruit flies, mice, and humans in the US and Europe during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Illmensee used nuclear transfer techniques (cloning) to create early mouse embryos from adult mouse cells, a technique biologists used in later decades to help explain how embryonic cells function during development. In the early 1980s, Illmensee faced accusations of fraud when others were unable to replicate the results of his experiments with cloned mouse embryos.

Created 2017-02-26

Last modified 2 months 4 weeks ago

Format: Articles

Walter Edward Dandy (1886-1946)

By Alexandra Bohnenberger

Walter Edward Dandy studied abnormalities in the developing human brain in the United States in the twentieth century. He collaborated with pediatrician Kenneth Blackfan to provide the first clinical description of Dandy-Walker Syndrome, a congenital brain malformation in which the medial part of the brain, called the cerebellar vermis, is absent. Dandy also described the circulation of cerebral spinal fluid, the clear, watery fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Created 2017-03-02

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Edward Charles Dodds (1899-1973)

By Alexis Abboud

Edward Charles Dodds researched the function and effects of natural and artificial hormones on the endocrine system in England during the twentieth century. Though he first worked with hormones such as insulin, Dodds focused on the effects of estrogen in the body and how to replicate those effects with artificial substances. In 1938, along with chemist Robert Robinson, Dodds synthesized the first synthetic estrogen called diethylstilbestrol.

Created 2017-03-06

Last modified 2 months 3 weeks ago

Format: Articles

Arthur Earl Walker (1907-1995)

By Alexandra Bohnenberger

Arthur Earl Walker was a medical researcher and physician who studied the brain and neurosurgery in the United States during the twentieth century. Walker examined the connections of the thalamus to the rest of the brain and how the thalamus coordinates sensory signals. The thalamus is a cluster of nerve cells located between the two hemispheres of the brain and it is responsible for consciousness and sensory interpretation.

Created 2017-03-07

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Ignacio Vives Ponseti (1914-2009)

By Katherine Gandee

Ignacio Vives Ponseti developed a noninvasive method for treating congenital club foot in the US during the late 1940s. Congenital club foot is a birth deformity in which one or both of an infant's feet are rotated inward beneath the ankle, making normal movement rigid and painful. Ponseti developed a treatment method, later called the Ponseti method, that consisted of a series of manipulations and castings of the club foot performed in the first few months of life.

Created 2017-03-09

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-1865)

By Safiya Shaikh, Daniella Caudle

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis demonstrated that the use of disinfectants could reduce the occurrence of puerperal fever in patients in nineteenth century Austria. Puerperal fever is a bacterial infection that can occur in the uterine tract of women after giving birth or undergoing an abortion. Semmelweis determined that puerperal fever is contagious and argued that the unhygienic practices of physicians, like examining patients after performing autopsies, caused the spread of puerperal fever.

Created 2017-04-06

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883–1962)

By Patsy Ciardullo

George Nicholas Papanicolaou developed the Pap test in the United States during the twentieth century. The Pap test is a diagnostic procedure used to test for cervical cancer in women. Papanicolaou’s work helped improve the reproductive health of women by providing an effective means of identifying precancerous cells and improving the likelihood of early treatment and survival of cervical cancer.

Created 2017-04-06

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Franz Josef Kallmann (1897–1965)

By Jessica Resnick

Franz Josef Kallmann studied the biological and genetic factors of psychological disorders in Germany and the United States in the twentieth century. His studies at the New York State Psychiatric Institute in New York City, New York, focused on the genetic factors that cause psychiatric disorders. Kallmann was one of the first to use twins to study how a mental disorder is passed on by comparing the occurrence of epilepsy and schizophrenia in both fraternal and identical twins.

Created 2017-04-06

Last modified 1 month 3 weeks ago

Format: Articles

Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857–1939)

By Jessica Resnick

Paul Eugen Bleuler studied autism and schizophrenia, among other psychiatric disorders, throughout continental Europe in the early twentieth century. Bleuler worked as a psychiatrist caring for patients with psychiatric disorders at a variety of facilities in Europe. In 1908, Bleuler coined the term schizophrenia to describe a group of diseases that cause changes in thought processes and behavior in humans as well as difficulties relating to the world.

Created 2017-04-06

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Norman Haire (1892-1952)

By Claudia Nunez-Eddy

Norman Haire was a physician who advocated for eugenics, which is the betterment of human population by promoting positive traits, and birth control rights in the twentieth century in both Australia and the UK. In the UK, Haire joined the Malthusian League, a contraception advocacy organization, and helped the League open the first physician-supervised birth control clinic, called Walworth Women’s Welfare Centre in London, England.

Created 2017-04-13

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Maurice Ralph Hilleman (1919–2005)

By Christian H. Ross

Maurice Ralph Hilleman developed vaccines at the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research in West Point, Pennsylvania, during the twentieth century. Over the course of his career at Merck, Hilleman created over forty vaccines, making him one of the most prolific developers of vaccine in the twentieth century. Of the fourteen vaccines commonly given to children in the US by 2015, Hilleman was responsible for eight of them. Hilleman's most widely used vaccine was his measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

Created 2017-04-13

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Stanley Alan Plotkin (1932– )

By Christian H. Ross

Stanley Alan Plotkin developed vaccines in the United States during the mid to late twentieth century. Plotkin began his research career at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he studied the rubella virus. In pregnant women, the rubella virus caused congenital rubella syndrome in the fetus, which led to various malformations and birth defects. Using WI-38 cells, a line of cells that originated from tissues of aborted fetuses, Plotkin successfully created RA27/3, a weakened strain of the rubella virus, which he then used to develop a rubella vaccine.

Created 2017-04-13

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Adib Jatene (1929–2014)

By Daniella Caudle

Adib Jatene in Brazil was the first surgeon to successfully perform the arterial switch operation in 1975. The operation corrected a heart condition in infants called transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Left untreated, infants with TGA die, as their blood cannot supply oxygen to their bodies. Jatene’s operation became widely used to correct the condition. Aside from medical research, Jatene worked for years in politics and education, serving as Brazil’s minister of health and teaching thoracic surgery at the University of São Paulo.

Created 2017-04-20

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Simon Edward Fisher (1970-)

By Kat Fowler

Simon Edward Fisher studied the genes that control speech and language in England and the Netherlands in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. In 2001, Fisher co-discovered the FOXP2 gene with Cecilia Lai, a gene related to language acquisition in humans and vocalization in other mammals. When damaged, the human version of the gene leads to language disorders that disrupt language and speech skills. Fisher's discovery validated the hypothesis that genes influence language, resulting in further investigations of language disorders and their heritability.

Created 2017-04-27

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Arthur William Galston (1920–2008)

By Cecilia Chou

Arthur W. Galston studied plant hormones in the United States during the late-twentieth century. His dissertation on the flowering process of soybean plants led others to develop Agent Orange, the most widely employed herbicide during the Vietnam War, used to defoliate forests and eliminate enemy cover and food sources. Galston protested the spraying of those defoliants in Vietnam, as they could be harmful to humans, animals, and the environment.

Created 2017-04-27

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

Charles Raymond Greene (1901–1982)

By Bianca E. Zietal

Charles Raymond Greene studied hormones and the effects of environmental conditions such as high-altitude on physiology in the twentieth century in the United Kingdom. Green researched frostbite and altitude sickness during his mountaineering expeditions, helping to explain how extreme environmental conditions effect respiration. Greene’s research on hormones led to a collaboration with physician Katarina Dalton that culminated in the development of the theory that progesterone caused premenstrual syndrome, a theory that became the basis for later research on the condition.

Created 2017-04-27

Last modified 2 weeks 5 days ago

Format: Articles

William Withey Gull (1816-1890)

By Alexis Abboud

William Withey Gull studied paraplegia, anorexia, and hormones as a physician in England during the nineteenth century. In addition to caring for patients, he described the role of the posterior column of the spinal cord in paraplegia, and he was among the first to describe the conditions of anorexia and of hypochondria. He also researched the effects of thyroid hormone deficiencies in women who had malfunctioning thyroid glands.

Created 2017-05-07

Last modified 2 weeks 6 days ago

Format: Articles

Calvin Blackman Bridges (1889-1938)

By Kevin Gleason

Calvin Blackman Bridges studied chromosomes and heredity in the US throughout the early twentieth century. Bridges performed research with Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University in New York City, New York, and at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Bridges and Morgan studied heredity in Drosophila, the common fruit fly. Throughout the early twentieth century, researchers were gathering evidence that genes, or what Gregor Mendel had called the factors that control heredity, are located on chromosomes.

Created 2017-05-19

Last modified 1 week 16 hours ago

Format: Articles

Alfred Henry Sturtevant (1891–1970)

By Kevin Gleason

Alfred Henry Sturtevant studied heredity in fruit flies in the US throughout the twentieth century. From 1910 to 1928, Sturtevant worked in Thomas Hunt Morgan’s research lab in New York City, New York. Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. In 1913, as an undergraduate, Sturtevant created one of the earliest genetic maps of a fruit fly chromosome, which showed the relative positions of genes along the chromosome.

Created 2017-05-20

Last modified 1 week 2 hours ago

Format: Articles

Lydia Estes Pinkham (1819–1883)

By Rainey Horwitz

Lydia Estes Pinkham invented and sold Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound, a medicinal tonic used to treat menstrual discomfort and promote female reproductive health in general, in the US during the nineteenth century. Pinkham also founded Mrs. Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company, a business that sold natural remedies for women’s health issues. Throughout her life, Pinkham acted as an authority on female wellness, writing medical pamphlets about female anatomy and reproductive processes.

Created 2017-05-20

Last modified 1 week 3 hours ago

Format: Articles

Julia Clifford Lathrop (1858–1932)

By Katherine Madgett

Julia Clifford Lathrop was an activist and social reformer in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries and the first chief of the United States Children’s Bureau. In that capacity, she conducted demographic studies to identify links between socioeconomic factors and infant mortality rates. Lathrop mobilized the effort to increase birth registration and designed programs and publications to promote infant and maternal health throughout the US.

Created 2017-05-22

Last modified 4 days 21 hours ago

Format: Articles

Matthew Stanley Meselson (1930– )

By Victoria Hernandez

Created 2017-05-23

Last modified 4 days 3 hours ago

Format: Articles

Anthony Comstock (1844–1915)

By Lakshmeeramya Malladi

Anthony Comstock was a US postal inspector and politician who advocated for the suppression of obscenity and vice throughout the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Comstock considered any sexually explicit material like pornography and literature related to birth control and abortion as obscene. In 1873, Comstock lobbied US Congress to pass an anti-obscenity law titled An Act for the Suppression of Trade in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of Immoral Use, also called the Comstock Act.

Created 2017-05-23

Last modified 4 days 17 min ago

Format: Articles

Katharina Dorothea Dalton (1916–2004)

By Bianca Zietal

Katharina Dorothea Dalton was a physician in England in the twentieth century who defined premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as a cluster of symptoms suspected to begin one to two weeks before menstruation and disappear upon the onset of a new menstrual cycle. Prior to Dalton, there was little research on pre-menstrual issues and those that existed linked the problem to excessive water retention or estrogen. Dalton hypothesized that PMS resulted from a deficiency in the hormone progesterone and advocated for hormone replacement therapy to lessen the symptoms of the syndrome.

Created 2017-05-24

Last modified 3 days 5 hours ago

Format: Articles

Leonard Colebrook (1883–1967)

By Safiya Shaikh

Leonard Colebrook was a physician who researched bacteria and infections in England during the twentieth century. In 1936, Colebrook deployed the antibiotic Prontosil to treat puerperal fever, a disorder that results from bacterial infections in the uterine tracts of women after childbirth or abortions. Colebrook also advanced care for burn patients by advocating for the creation of burn units in hospitals and by using antisepsis medication for burn wound infections. Colebrook’s work on treatments for puerperal fever reduced cases of puerperal fever throughout the world.

Created 2017-05-25

Last modified 2 days 6 hours ago

Format: Articles

Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967)

By Kevin Gleason

Hermann Joseph Muller studied the effects of x-ray radiation on genetic material in the US during the twentieth century. At that time, scientists had yet to determine the dangers that x-rays presented. In 1927, Muller demonstrated that x-rays, a form of high-energy radiation, can mutate the structure of genetic material. Muller warned others of the dangers of radiation, advising radiologists to protect themselves and their patients from radiation. He also opposed the indiscriminate use of radiation in medical and industrial fields.

Created 2017-05-25

Last modified 2 days 5 hours ago

Format: Articles

Josef Warkany (1902–1992)

By Bianca Zietal, Chanapa Tantibanchachai

Josef Warkany studied the environmental causes of birth defects in the United States in the twentieth century. Warkany was one of the first researchers to show that factors in the environment could cause birth defects, and he helped to develop guidelines for the field of teratology, the study of birth defects. Prior to Warkany’s work, scientists struggled to explain if or how environmental agents could cause birth defects. Warkany demonstrated that a deficiency or excess of vitamin A in maternal nutrition could cause birth defects.

Created 2017-05-26

Last modified 1 day 2 hours ago

Format: Articles

Alpheus Hyatt Plaque

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Created After 1928

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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Lorande Loss Woodruff

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Created circa 1928

Last modified 3 years 8 months ago

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Edwin Grant Conklin

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Created early 1920s?

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

Format: Photographs

Robert Huettner with Dr. & Mrs. William P. Procter

By Alfred F. (Alfred Francis) Huettner

Robert Huettner as a child with Dr. and Mrs. William P. Procter behind

Created early 1930s

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

Format: Photographs

Roberts Rugh

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “1963A” bottom autograph: “Roberts Rugh / Protozoology / Columbia Univ.”

Created Late 1920s-Early 1930s

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

Format: Photographs

George Gray, Cornelia Clapp, and Dr. Sharp

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Created Probably after 1928

Last modified 3 years 8 months ago

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Ethel Browne Harvey

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Created Probably after 1928

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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William Salant

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Created undated

Last modified 3 years 8 months ago

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R. E. Cleland

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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H. L. Wieman

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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Mrs. and Dr. W .E. deMol

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 7 months ago

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Howard C. Warren

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Last modified 1 year 7 months ago

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H. C. Warren

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Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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John Sterling Kingsley

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Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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Brown

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 7 months ago

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R. L. King

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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F. B. Wann

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 7 months ago

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A. W. Leathers

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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D. H. Wenrich

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 7 months ago

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W. M. Wheeler

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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E. F. Peabody and A. E. Hunt

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Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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C. R. Stockard, W. E. Carrey, Robert Chambers

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Created undated

Last modified 1 year 9 months ago

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