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Arizona State University Embryo Project Photograph Collections

In the 1970s Stanford University Embryologist Harold Heath sent a box of photographs to Frederick B. Churchill, who was a Professor in the History and Philosophy of Science Department at Indiana University. Heath was born in Indiana, he knew that Churchill was the leading historian of embryology, and he wanted his photographs to be used and therefore wanted them to be housed somewhere with an interest in the history of biology. Heath made it clear that he was donating the photographs for use by scholars and the public.

Format: Articles

Subject: Outreach

Washington University in St. Louis

Washington University in St. Louis served as the backdrop for many scientific discoveries, including that of nerve growth factor (NGF). Many of the accomplishments in embryology at Washington University can be attributed to the influence of Viktor Hamburger. He served as chair of the zoology department for twenty-five years. One of the few Nobel Prizes given for embryological research was awarded to faculty members Hamburger hired; Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen won for their role in the discovery of nerve growth factor.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations

E.B. Wilson at Columbia University

E.B. Wilson portrait with microscope looking at camera

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

E.B. Wilson at Columbia University

E.B. Wilson portrait with microscope

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Douglas H. Campbell

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “295” bottom “Douglas H. Campbell / Stanford University / Botany”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University

Thomas Hunt Morgan sitting reading papers at Columbia

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Thomas Hunt Morgan at Columbia University

Thomas Hunt Morgan portrait

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

United States v. University Hospital (1984)

The US 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals' 1984 decision United States v. University Hospital, State University Hospital of New York at Stony Brook set a significant precedent for affirming parental privilege to make medical decisions for handicapped newborns, while limiting the ability of the federal government to intervene. The ruling stemmed from the 1983 case involving an infant born with severe physical and mental congenital defects; the infant was only identified as Baby Jane Doe.

Format: Articles

Subject: Legal, Reproduction

Gordon Floyd Ferris

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “304A” bottom autograph: “G. H. Ferris / Asst. Prof., / Entomology / Stanford”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Austin Flint Rogers

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “313” “1923” “Austin F. Rogers / Mineralogy, Stanford”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

George Clinton Price

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “314” bottom, autograph: “G. C. Price / March 8, 1923” “Stanford U / Zoology”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

James Perrin Smith

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “316” autograph: “Jan Perrin Smith”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Charles Vincent Taylor

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “187” Bottom autograph “C. V. Taylor / Univ. of Calif. / Zoology”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Free Hospital for Women Scrapbook by Harvard University Library

This scrapbook is part of the Harvard University Library's collection on "Working Women, 1800-1930," which is itself part of the Open Collections Program. The print version is located at the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine. It contains information about the hospital, including articles from newspapers, magazines, and other publications; photographs of the hospital, employees, and special events; lecture announcements; letters and other forms of correspondence; ration cards; tickets; forms; certificates; posters; programs; and playbills.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations, Ethics, Reproduction

T.H. Morgan in the "Fly Room" Columbia University c. 1916

Morgan surrounded by samples, person head in foreground on right

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Countdown to Life: The Extraordinary Making of You (2015), by the British Broadcasting Corporation and The Open University

In 2015, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) partnered with The Open University to produce the three-part documentary series, Countdown to Life: The Extraordinary Making of You. Michael Mosley, a British television producer and journalist, hosts the documentary. Along with narrating animated scenes of a growing fetus in the womb, Mosley meets with individuals around the world who experienced mutations that can arise in the womb. Introduced over the course of the three episodes, several people share their personal stories of how their bodies did not develop correctly prior to birth.

Format: Articles

Subject: Publications

California Proposition 71 (2004)

The California Stem Cell Research and Cures Act, also called Proposition 71, was a ballot
initiative proposed by California voters in 2004 to allocate three billion dollars of state
funds for stem cell research over ten years. Endorsed by California scientists and
patient-advocates, Prop 71 passed on 2 November 2004, amending the state constitution to make
stem cell research a constitutional right. In addition, Prop 71 led to the creation of the
California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM), in San Francisco, California to allocate

Format: text/xhtml

Subject: Legal

Beadle and Tatum's 1941 Experiments with Neurospora Revealed that Genes Produce Enzymes

Object is a digital image that depicts four stages in Beadle and Tatum's Neurospora experiments. Each stage is depicted in a separate section, with different test tubes in each section.

This illustration shows George Beadle and Edward Tatum's experiments with Neurospora crassa that indicated that single genes produce single enzymes. The pair conducted the experiments at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California. Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, reactions that produce a number of things, including nutrients that the cell needs. Neurospora crassa is a species of mold that grows on bread.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Theories, Experiments

Beadle's One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis

Object is a digital image with two panes, one on top of the other, both of which picture the area within a cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane. The top pane represent three genes within the cell nucleus, each of which produces a distinct kind of enzyme outside of the nucleus. Those enzymes then function in three distinct kinds of metabolic reactions. The bottom pane represents the same situation, except the second gene is damaged by x-rays and can't produce its enzymes. As a result, two of the three metabolic reactions fail to happen.

Between 1934 and 1945, George Beadle developed a hypothesis that each gene within the chromosomes of organisms each produced one enzyme. Enzymes are types of proteins that can catalyze reactions inside cells, and the figure shows that each enzyme controls a stage in a series of biochemical reactions. The top box in this figure represents a normal process of enzyme production and biochemical reactions, and the bottom box shows how Beadle's experiments affected the normal biochemical process.

Format: Graphics

Subject: Theories, Processes

David Starr Jordan (1851-1931)

David Starr Jordan studied fish and promoted eugenics in the US during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In his work, he embraced Charles Darwin s theory of evolution and described the importance of embryology in tracing phylogenic relationships. In 1891, he became the president of Stanford University in Stanford, California. Jordan condemned war and promoted conservationist causes for the California wilderness, and he advocated for the eugenic sterilization of thousands of Americans.

Format: Articles

Subject: People, Reproduction

Andrew Zachary Fire (1959- )

Andrew Zachary Fire is a professor at Stanford University and Nobel Laureate. Fire worked at the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Embryology in Baltimore, Maryland, with colleague Craig Mello, where they discovered that RNA molecules could be used to turn off or knock out the expression of genes. Fire and Mello called the process RNA interference (RNAi), and won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2006 for their discovery.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Isabel and Thomas Hunt Morgan

Isabel (back) and Thomas Hunt Morgan at Schemaerhorn Hall at Columbia University

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Slime mold development video by John Tyler Bonner

1 black and white video ; approximately 6 minutes ; sound; video/mp4; reformatted video

This video is composed of a sequence of time lapse films created by John Tyler Bonner in the 1940s to show the life cycle of the cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum. As only the second person to study slime molds, Bonner frequently encountered audiences who had never heard of, let alone seen, the unusual organism. He therefore decided to create a film to present at seminars in order to introduce his object of study. Bonner created the video for his senior thesis at Harvard University with the help of photographer Frank Smith.

Format: Video

Subject: Organisms

"Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells" (2005), by Leon Kass and the President’s Council on Bioethics

Human pluripotent stem cells are valued for their potential to form numerous specialized cells and for their longevity. In the US, where a portion of the population is opposed to destruction of human embryos to obtain stem cells, what avenues are open to scientists for obtaining pluripotent cells that do not offend the moral sensibilities of a significant number of citizens?

Format: Articles

Subject: Publications, Ethics

James McMurphy

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “293” bottom, autograph: “James McMurphy / Mycology / Phylo---ogy [Phytobiology?] / Stanford”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

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