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Human Betterment Foundation (1928-1942)

In 1928 Ezra Seymour Gosney founded the non-profit Human Betterment Foundation (HBF) in Pasadena, California to support the research and publication of the personal and social effects of eugenic sterilizations carried out in California. Led by director Gosney and secretary Paul Popenoe, the HBF collected data on thousands of individuals in California who had been involuntarily sterilized under a California state law enacted in 1909. The Foundation's assets were liquidated following Gosney's death in 1942.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations, Reproduction

Golden Rice

Golden Rice was engineered from normal rice by Ingo Potrykus and Peter Beyer in the 1990s to help improve human health. Golden Rice has an engineered multi-gene biochemical pathway in its genome. This pathway produces beta-carotene, a molecule that becomes vitamin A when metabolized by humans. Ingo Potrykus worked at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, and Peter Beyer worked at University of Freiburg, in Freiburg, Germany. The US Rockefeller Foundation supported their collaboration.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organisms, Legal

"The Effects of Wing Bud Extirpation on the Development of the Central Nervous System in Chick Embryos" (1934), by Viktor Hamburger

German embryologist Viktor Hamburger came to the US in 1932 with a fellowship provided by the Rockefeller Foundation. Hamburger started his research in Frank Rattray Lillie's laboratory at the University of Chicago. His two-year work on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) in chick embryos was crystallized in his 1934 paper, "The Effects of Wing Bud Extirpation on the Development of the Central Nervous System in Chick Embryos," published in The Journal of Experimental Zoology.

Format: Articles

Subject: Publications, Experiments

Center for Reproductive Health (1986-1995)

The Center for Reproductive Health was a fertility clinic run by a partnership of world-renowned fertility specialists from 1986 to 1995. The Center operated at three clinic locations under affiliation with the University of California Irvine 's Medical Center (UCIMC). The Center's renowned specialists and medical success stories attracted clients worldwide until evidence of highly unethical practices conducted by doctors there resulted in over one hundred lawsuits against the University. At issue was the doctors' misappropriation and unauthorized use of eggs and embryos.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations, Reproduction

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Mammals (1938-2013)

In the second half of the
twentieth century, scientists learned how to clone organisms in some
species of mammals. Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and
mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory
and medical use. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technology applied in cloning, stem cell
research and regenerative medicine. Somatic cells are cells that
have gone through the differentiation process and are not germ
cells. Somatic cells donate their nuclei, which scientists

Format: Articles

Subject: Theories, Technologies, Processes

Seed Collection and Plant Genetic Diversity, 1900-1979

Farmers have long relied on genetic diversity to breed new crops, but in the early 1900s scientists began to study the importance of plant genetic diversity for agriculture. Scientists realized that seed crops could be systematically bred with their wild relatives to incorporate specific genetic traits or to produce hybrids for more productive crop yields.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations

Oswald Theodore Avery (1877-1955)

Oswald Theodore Avery studied strains of pneumococcus of the genus Streptococcus in the US in the first half of the twentieth century. This bacterium causes pneumonia, a common cause of death at the turn of the twentieth century. In a 1944 paper, Avery demonstrated with colleagues Colin Munro MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty that deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, instead of protein, formed the material of heritable transformation in bacteria. Avery helped untangle some of the relationships between genes and developmental processes.

Subject: People

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 8 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 9

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 9 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 8

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 10

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 11 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 10 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 11

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 12

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 12 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 13

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 13 Suppl.

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 14

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 16, pt. 1

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 15, pt. 1

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 16, pt. 2

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 17, pt. 2

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

General Embryological Information Service, vol. 18, pt. 1

Journal issued by the Hubrecht Laboratory on behalf of the General Embryological Information Service Foundation.

Format: Publications

Subject: People, Organizations

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