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Nettie Maria Stevens (1861-1912)

Multiple theories about what determines sex were tested at the turn of the twentieth century. By experimenting on germ cells, cytologist Nettie Maria Stevens collected evidence to support the connection between heredity and the sex of offspring. Stevens was able to interpret her data to conclude that chromosomes have a role in sex determination during development. For her time, she was an emerging breed: a woman of science making the leap from the world of data collection to that of male-dominated interpretive work.

Format: Articles

Subject: People, Reproduction

Studies in Spermatogenesis (1905), by Nettie Maria Stevens

Studies in Spermatogenesis is a two volume book written by Nettie Maria Stevens, and published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905 and 1906. In the books Stevens explains the research she conducted on chromosomal sex determination in the sperm and egg cells of insect species while at Bryn Mawr College, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Studies in Spermatogenesis described early examples of chromosomal XY sex-determination.

Format: Articles

Subject: Publications

Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)

Although best known for his work with the fruit fly, for which he earned a Nobel Prize and the title "The Father of Genetics," Thomas Hunt Morgan's contributions to biology reach far beyond genetics. His research explored questions in embryology, regeneration, evolution, and heredity, using a variety of approaches.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Mary Huettner

Mary Huettner in field of daisies

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

Mary Gojdics

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Format: Photographs

Marie Krogh

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Austin

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Kilpatrick

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Gardiner

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Marie A. Henrichs

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary T. Guthrie

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Stuart MacDougal

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Huettner collecting in the marsh

Mary Huettner collecting in the marsh

Format: Photographs

Subject: People, Places

Mary Huettner collecting in the marsh

Mary Huettner collecting in the marsh

Format: Photographs

Subject: People, Places

Mary Huettner Sippewissett Road

Mary Huettner on lawn near a row of flowers

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

Mary Huettner in a canoe

Mary Huettner (L) in canoe, others unknown

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Huettner at Gansett Beach

Mary R. Huettner at Gansett Beach

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

Marie Stopes International

Marie Stopes International (MSI) is a not-for-profit organization based in the United Kingdom that promotes reproductive and sexual health. It grew from one small clinic, founded in North London in 1921, into an international provider of reproductive health care and information that operates in almost forty countries. The Mothers' Clinic, from which it grew, was created in the hopes of expanding couples' reproductive rights, and the modern organization continues to work toward the same goal today.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations, Reproduction

Mary Warnock (1924- )

Baroness Mary Warnock of Weeke, a philosopher and crossbench member and Life Peer of the United Kingdom's House of Lords, participated in several national British committees of inquiry that dealt with ethical and policy issues surrounding animal experimentation, pollution, genetics, and euthanasia to educational policies for children with special needs. One of these was the Committee of Inquiry into Human Fertilization and Embryology, of which Warnock was the chair.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Simone Mary Campbell (1945–)

Simone Campbell is a Roman Catholic sister, attorney, and poet who advocated for social justice, especially equal access to healthcare in the US in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Campbell worked as a lawyer and served the working poor in California. As of 2018, she works for NETWORK, a lobbying group in Washington DC that focuses on broadening access to healthcare by lowering costs.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Margaret A. Hayden and Mary E. Collet

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Format: Photographs

Mary Knight Dunlap

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Mills Patrick

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Mary Jane Hogue

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Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (1880-1958)

Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on 15 October 1880 to Charlotte Carmichael Stopes, a suffragist, and Henry Stopes, an archaeologist and anthropologist. A paleobotanist best known for her social activism in the area of sexuality, Stopes was a pioneer in the fight to gain sexual equality for women. Her activism took many forms including writing books and pamphlets, giving public appearances, serving on panels, and, most famously, co-founding the first birth control clinic in the United Kingdom.

Format: Articles

Subject: People, Ethics, Reproduction

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