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Ian Donald (1910–1987)

Ian Donald was an obstetrician who developed the technology and therapy of ultrasound diagnostics during the twentieth century in Europe. Ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body. During the early 1900s, physicians had no way to see inside a woman’s uterus during pregnancy. Donald developed the first method of scanning human internal anatomy in real time, which enabled doctors to diagnose potentially fatal tumors and cysts.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Donald G. Loomis

Inscriptions on image: Front, top: “1053A” bottom, autograph: “D. G. Loomis / Science Service / 11/5/24”

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Donald E. Lancefield

image/jpg black and white image reformatted digital

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Ian Wilmut (1944- )

British embryologist Sir Ian Wilmut, best known for his work in the field of animal genetic engineering and the successful cloning of sheep, was born 7 July 1944 in Hampton Lucy, England. The family later moved to Scarborough, in the north of the country, to allow his father to accept a teaching position. There Wilmut met Gordon Whalley, head of the biology department at Scarborough High School for Boys, which Wilmut attended.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

Rebecca and Donald Lancefield with Mary Huettner

Mary Huettner, Rebecca Lancefield (lying down) and Donald Lancefield - Picnic in the woods

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Rebecca and Donald Lancefield with Mary Huettner having a picnic

Donald Lancefield, Rebecca Lancefield and Mary Huettner - Picnic in the woods

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

"Viable Offspring Derived from Fetal and Adult Mammalian Cells" (1997), by Ian Wilmut et al.

In the 1990s, Ian Wilmut, Jim McWhir, and Keith Campbell performed experiments while working at the Roslin Institute in Roslin, Scotland. Wilmut, McWhir, and Campbell collaborated with Angelica Schnieke and Alex J. Kind at PPL Therapeutics in Roslin, a company researching cloning and genetic manipulation for livestock. Their experiments resulted in several sheep being born in July 1996, one of which was a sheep named Dolly born 5 July 1996.

Format: Articles

Subject: Experiments

"Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line" (1996), by Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, William Ritchie, and Ian Wilmut

In 1995 and 1996, researchers at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, cloned mammals for the first time. Keith Campbell, Jim McWhir, William Ritchie, and Ian Wilmut cloned two sheep, Megan and Morag, using sheep embryo cells. The experiments indicated how to reprogram nuclei from differentiated cells to produce live offspring, and that a single population of differentiated cells could produce multiple offspring. They reported their results in the article 'Sheep Cloned by Nuclear Transfer from a Cultured Cell Line' in March 1996.

Format: Articles

Subject: Experiments

At the beach

(L to R) Donald Lancefield, Rebecca Lancefield, unknown

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Pitching Horseshoes Outside of Old Main

EE Just wearing hat with Franz Schrader and Donald Lancefield in background

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

Camping on Elizabeth Islands

Donald Lancefield (far left), Rebecca Lancefield (dark dress)

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

EE Just pitching horseshoes

E.E. Just playing horseshoes, Donald Lancefield behind. Unknown to left

Format: Photographs

Subject: People, Places

Collecting on the beach

on the Beach. Donald Lancefield on right, Rebecca Lancefield to his left

Format: Photographs

Subject: People, Places

The Roslin Institute (1993- )

The Roslin Institute was established in 1993 in the village of Roslin, Scotland, as an independent research center by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), and as of 2014 is part of the University of Edinburgh in Edinburgh, Scotland. Researchers at the Roslin Institute cloned the Dolly the sheep in 1996. According to the Roslin Institute, Dolly was the first mammal to develop into an adult from the transfer of the nucleus of an adult sheep cell into an ovum with the nucleus removed.

Format: Articles

Subject: Organizations

Schrader, Sturtevant and Lancefield pitching horseshoes

Franz Schrader (pitching), Alfred H. Sturtevant (middle, dark clothes) & Donald Lancefield (right) pitching horseshoes

Format: Photographs

Subject: Places, People

Pitching horseshoes behind Old Main

Pitching horseshoes behind Old Main. EE Just (left) and Donald Lancefield

Format: Photographs

Subject: People, Places

Lancefields & Johnson Wedding

Rebecca Lancefield (seated on floor), Franz Schrader and Sally Hughes Schrader (seated), Donald Lancefield (center back)

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Schraders, Lancefields, Huettners, Johnsons at wedding 1921

Mary Huettner (front row, center), Alfred Huettner (front row right), Franz Schrader (2nd row left), Sally Hughes Schrader (2nd row center), Rebecca Lancefield (2nd row right), Donald Lancefield (rear on right)

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

Fly Room at Columbia

Morgan (center). Clockwise from Morgan: McGregor, unknown, unknown, unknown, blocked, Muller, Alfred H. Sturtevant?, unknown, Alfred Huettner, Donald Lancefield. Identification by Mrs. Robert J. (Carmela) Huettner, daughter-in-law of photographer

Format: Photographs

Subject: People

George McDonald Church (1954- )

George McDonald Church studied DNA from living and from extinct species in the US during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Church helped to develop and refine techniques with which to describe the complete sequence of all the DNA nucleotides in an organism's genome, techniques such as multiplex sequencing, polony sequencing, and nanopore sequencing. Church also contributed to the Human Genome Project, and in 2005 he helped start a company, the Personal Genome Project. Church proposed to use DNA from extinct species to clone and breed new organisms from those species.

Format: Articles

Subject: People

"Human Factor IX Transgenic Sheep Produced by Transfer of Nuclei from Transfected Fetal Fibroblasts" (1997), by Angelika E. Schnieke, et al.

In the 1990s, researchers working at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh, Scotland, performed cloning experiments in collaboration with PPL Therapeutics in Roslin, Scotland, on human coagulation factor IX, a protein. The team of scientists used the methods identified during the Dolly experiments to produce transgenic livestock capable of producing milk containing human blood clotting factor IX, which helps to treat a type of hemophilia.

Format: Articles

Subject: Experiments

Keith Henry Stockman Campbell (1954-2012)

Keith Henry Stockman Campbell studied embryo growth and cell differentiation during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in the UK. In 1995, Campbell and his scientific team used cells grown and differentiated in a laboratory to clone sheep for the first time. They named these two sheep Megan and Morag. Campbell and his team also cloned a sheep from adult cells in 1996, which they named Dolly. Dolly was the first mammal cloned from specialized adult (somatic) cells with the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

Format: Articles

Subject: People

2D Obstetric Ultrasound

The development of the obstetric ultrasound has allowed physicians and embryologists to obtain a clear picture of the developing human embryo and fetus during pregnancy. Obstetric ultrasonography, often referred to as ultrasound, is a technology that uses sound waves to produce images of structures inside the human body. A handheld probe emits sound waves, which are reflected back by the different structures within the body.

Format: Articles

Subject: Technologies, Reproduction

Hydrocephalus During Infancy

Hydrocephalus is a congenital or acquired disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cavities of the brain, called ventricles. The accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid, the clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord, causes an abnormal widening of the ventricles. The widening creates potentially harmful pressure on the tissues of the brain that can result in brain damage or death.

Format: Articles

Subject: Disorders

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in Mammals (1938-2013)

In the second half of the
twentieth century, scientists learned how to clone organisms in some
species of mammals. Scientists have applied somatic cell nuclear transfer to clone human and
mammalian embryos as a means to produce stem cells for laboratory
and medical use. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technology applied in cloning, stem cell
research and regenerative medicine. Somatic cells are cells that
have gone through the differentiation process and are not germ
cells. Somatic cells donate their nuclei, which scientists

Format: Articles

Subject: Theories, Technologies, Processes

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