Ameisen: Die heimliche Weltmacht (Ants: Nature’s Secret Power) (2004)Ameisen: Die heimliche Weltmacht (Ants: Nature's Secret Power)
is a nature documentary
about ants. Wolfgang Thaler wrote, filmed, and directed the film, which focuses on the work
of ant researcher Bert Hölldobler. The 2004 film was produced by Adi Mayer Film for
Österreichischer Rundfunk (Austrian Broadcasting), a public service broadcaster
headquartered in Vienna, Austria. Ants: Nature's Secret Power
) surveys the adaptive
and reproductive behaviors of a variety of ant species in both laboratory and natural
settings. Thaler's film communicated the reproductive practices of ants to
a popular audience in an accessible manner, familiarizing the public with rarely seen
aspects of ants.
Anthony Comstock (1844–1915)Anthony Comstock
was a US postal inspector and politician who
advocated for the suppression of obscenity and vice throughout
the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century.
Comstock considered any sexually explicit material like
pornography and literature related to birth control
as obscene. In 1873, Comstock lobbied US Congress to pass an
anti-obscenity law titled “An Act for the Suppression of Trade
in, and Circulation of, Obscene Literature and Articles of
Immoral Use,” also called the Comstock Act. The law penalized
Matthew Stanley Meselson (1930– )
Matthew Stanley Meselson conducted DNA and RNA research in the US
during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. He also influenced US
policy regarding the use of chemical and biological weapons. Meselson
and his colleague Franklin Stahl demonstrated that DNA replication is
semi-conservative. Semi-conservative replication means that every newly
replicated DNA double helix, which consists of two individual DNA
strands wound together, contains one strand that was conserved from a
parent double helix and that served as a template for the other strand.
Meselson's work enabled researchers to better explain and control
cellular development by showing how DNA are copied when a cell divides
and interpreted when a cell makes proteins.
"The linear arrangement of six sex-linked factors in drosophila, as shown by their mode of association” (1913), by Alfred Henry Sturtevant
In 1913, Alfred Henry Sturtevant published the results of experiments in which he showed how genes
are arranged along a chromosome. Sturtevant performed those experiments as an undergraduate at Columbia University
, in New York, New York, under the guidance of Nobel laureate Thomas Hunt Morgan
. Sturtevant studied heredity using Drosophila
, the common fruit fly.
“Sex Limited Inheritance in Drosophila” (1910) by Thomas Hunt Morgan
In 1910, Thomas Hunt Morgan
performed an experiment at Columbia University
, in New York City, New York, that helped identify the role chromosomes play in heredity. That year, Morgan was breeding Drosophila
, or fruit flies. After observing thousands of fruit fly offspring with red eyes, he obtained one that had white eyes. Morgan began breeding the white-eyed mutant fly and found that in one generation of flies, the trait was only present in males.
Julia Clifford Lathrop (1858–1932)
Julia Clifford Lathrop was an activist and social reformer in the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries and the first chief of the United States Children’s Bureau. In that capacity, she conducted demographic studies to identify links between socioeconomic factors and infant mortality rates. Lathrop mobilized the effort to increase birth registration and designed programs and publications to promote infant and maternal health throughout the US. Through her studies, she empirically linked poverty and lack of education with higher than normal risks of infant and maternal mortality, and her results supported legislation aimed at lowering infant and maternal mortality in the US.
Alfred Henry Sturtevant (1891–1970)
Alfred Henry Sturtevant studied heredity in fruit flies in the US throughout the twentieth century. From 1910 to 1928, Sturtevant worked in Thomas Hunt Morgan’s research lab in New York City, New York. Sturtevant, Morgan, and other researchers established that chromosomes play a role in the inheritance of traits. In 1913, as an undergraduate, Sturtevant created one of the earliest genetic maps of a fruit fly chromosome, which showed the relative positions of genes
along the chromosome.
Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound (1873-1906)
First marketed in the US 1875, Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound was an herbal medicine used by women to relieve menstrual discomfort and menopausal symptoms in women. The herbal compound was invented by Lydia Estes Pinkham in 1873 in her home kitchen in Lynn, Massachusetts. Pinkham created the compound by mixing alcohol with roots and herbs. The compound was patented, packaged, and distributed by the Mrs. Lydia Pinkham Medicine Company in 1876. The Mrs. Lydia Pinkham Medicine Company advertised the compound in many US newspapers and magazines, causing Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound to become a household name and making treatments for female reproductive discomfort mainstream in the US.
Lydia Estes Pinkham (1819–1883)
Lydia Estes Pinkham invented and sold Lydia Pinkham’s Vegetable Compound, a medicinal tonic used to treat menstrual discomfort and promote female reproductive health in general, in the US during the nineteenth century. Pinkham also founded Mrs. Lydia E. Pinkham Medicine Company, a business that sold natural remedies for women’s health issues. Throughout her life, Pinkham acted as an authority on female wellness, writing medical pamphlets about female anatomy and reproductive processes. In those pamphlets, Pinkham addressed female medical issues that physicians did not frequently discuss with their patients. Pinkham’s advertising techniques and her products helped women learn about their reproductive anatomy and processes and helped ease menstruation