The Colposcope and Colposcopy (1925–1980)

The Colposcope and Colposcopy (1925–1980) Colposcopy is a technique used to examine the vagina and cervix to identify abnormalities or earlier stages of cervical cancer. During an exam, a physician uses an instrument, called a colposcope, that illuminates and magnifies the tissues. Hans Hinselmann developed the colposcope in December of 1924 in Hamburg, Germany. Hinselmann's colposcope enabled doctors to detect cervical tumors when they were relatively small. By the twenty-first century, doctors used colposcopy as a follow-up procedure to an abnormal Pap test result to confirm or disconfirm the existence of any precancerous cells in the cervix.

"Vietnam Veterans' Risks for Fathering Babies with Birth Defects" (1984), by J. David Erickson et al.

"Vietnam Veterans' Risks for Fathering Babies with Birth Defects" (1984), by J. David Erickson, Joseph Mulinare, Philip W. McClain, Terry G. Fitch, Levy M. James, Anne B. McClearn, Myron J. Adams, Jr. In 1984, J. David Erickson and his research team published the results of a study titled "Vietnam Veterans' Risks for Fathering Babies with Birth Defects" that indicated that Vietnam veterans were at increased risk of fathering infants with serious congenital malformations, or birth defects. Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, conducted the study to address the issue. Though the study's results were inconclusive, the study was one of the first to document a possible association between Vietnam

"Veterans and Agent Orange Update 1996: Summary and Research Highlights" by the US National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine

"Veterans and Agent Orange Update 1996: Summary and Research Highlights" by the US <a href="/search?text=National%20Academy%20of%20Sciences" title="" class="lexicon-term">National Academy of Sciences</a>' Institute of Medicine In March 1996, the National Academy of Sciences of the United States released "Veterans and Agent Orange Update 1996: Summary and Research Highlights," which summarized research on the health effects of Agent Orange and other herbicides used in the Vietnam War. In their 1996 report, the National Academy connects Agent Orange exposure with two health conditions: spina bifida, a birth defect that occurs when the spinal cord develops improperly, and peripheral neuropathy, a nervous system condition in which the

"The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" (1965), by Austin Bradford Hill

"The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" (1965), by Austin Bradford HillIn 1965, Austin Bradford Hill published the article "The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation?" in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. In the article, Hill describes nine criteria to determine if an environmental factor, especially a condition or hazard in a work environment, causes an illness. The article arose from an inaugural presidential address Hill gave at the 1965 meeting of the Section of Occupational Medicine of the Royal Society of Medicine in London, England. The criteria he established in the article became known as the Bradford Hill criteria and the medical community refers to them when determining whether an environmental condition causes an illness. The criteria outlined in "The Environment and Disease: Association or

“An Extended Family with a Dominantly Inherited Speech Disorder” (1990), by Jane A. Hurst et al.

“An Extended Family with a Dominantly Inherited Speech Disorder” (1990), by Jane A. Hurst et al.In 1990, researcher Jane Hurst and her colleagues published "An Extended Family With a Dominantly Inherited Speech Disorder," in which they proposed that a single gene was responsible for a language disorder across three generations of a family. Affected individuals of the family, called the KE family, had difficulty producing, expressing and comprehending speech. Hurst and her team studied the KE family and the disorder at the Department of Clinical Genetics at the Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children in London, England. Their report was subsequently published in the journal Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology in 1990. The authors' conclusions helped researchers better

Christian Peeters and Bert Hölldobler's Experiments on Reproduction in Indian Jumping Ants (1991–1994)

Christian Peeters and Bert Hölldobler's Experiments on Reproduction in Indian Jumping Ants (1991–1994) Between 1991 and 1994, Christian Peeters and Bert Hölldobler studied the reproductive behaviors of the Indian jumping ant (Harpegnathos saltator), a species native to southern India. They conducted experiments as part of a larger investigation into conflict and reproductive behavior among ants. Peeters and Hölldobler discovered that Indian jumping ant colonies contained both sexually reproductive workers and egg-laying queens. In most other species of ant, the queens are the only sexually reproductive individuals. After conducting their experiments, Peeters and Hölldobler argued that queens and sexually reproductive workers cooperated in the Indian

Infant Mortality: Results of a Field Study in Johnstown, PA., Based on Births in One Calendar Year (1915), by Emma Duke

Infant Mortality: Results of a Field Study in Johnstown, PA., Based on Births in One Calendar Year (1915) by Emma Duke The book Infant Mortality: Results of a Field Study in Johnstown, PA., Based on Births in One Calendar Year (1915), written by Emma Duke, detailed one of the first infant mortality field studies conducted by the US Children's Bureau. In the study, Duke and her colleagues collected information about over one thousand infants in the city of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. They used that information, along with interviews conducted with the families of the infants, to identify factors that affected infant mortality rates in the community. Duke and her team found strong correlations between elevated infant mortality rates and conditions experienced by Johnstown residents of lower socioeconomic status. The design and implementation of the study

"The Familial Factor in Toxemia of Pregnancy" (1968), by Leon C. Chesley, et al.

The Familial Factor in Toxemia of Pregnancy by Leon C. Chesley, John Annitto, and Robert A. CosgroveIn the 1950s and 1960s, researchers Leon Chesley, John Annitto, and Robert Cosgrove investigated the possible familial factor for the conditions of preeclampsia and eclampsia in pregnant women. Preeclampsia and eclampsia, which are related to high blood pressure, have unknown causes and affect at least five percent of all pregnancies. The researchers, who worked at Margaret Hague Maternity Hospital in Jersey City, New Jersey, used hospital patient records to find and reexamine women who had eclampsia at the hospital, as well as their daughters, sisters, daughters-in-law, and granddaughters. Chesley and colleagues found that the daughters and granddaughters of eclamptic women were more likely than the female

"'Doing the Month': Confinement and Convalescence of Chinese Women After Childbirth" (1978), by Barbara L.K. Pillsbury

"'Doing the Month': Confinement and Convalescence of Chinese Women After Childbirth" (1978) by Barbara L.K. PillsburyIn 1978 Social Science and Medicine published Barbara L.K. Pillsbury's article, "'Doing the Month': Confinement and Convalescence of Chinese Women After Childbirth," which summarized the results of Pillsbury's study on Chinese childbirth customs. Pillsbury, a professor of cultural anthropology at San Diego State University in San Diego, California, conducted over eighty interviews with people in Taiwan and China, including civilians, herbalists, and physicians over a four-month period in 1975. She aimed to highlight how a traditional Chinese post-childbirth custom known as zuo yuezi (sitting the month) persisted in modern Chinese society. The practice refers to the month-long period that women who have just given birth must spend resting, or in

"Congenital Club Foot in the Human Fetus" (1980), by Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti

Congenital Club Foot in the Human Fetus by Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti (1980)In 1980, Ernesto Ippolito and Ignacio Ponseti published their results on a histological study they performed on congenital club foot in human fetuses. The researchers examined the feet of four aborted fetuses and compared the skeletal tissues from healthy feet to those affected by congenital club foot. Infants born with club foot are born with one or both feet rigidly twisted inwards and upwards, making typical movement painful and challenging. Ippolito and Ponseti studied how the connective tissues, such as the ligaments and tendons stretching across the foot and ankle, function to pull the affected foot out of place as the fetus develops. Their findings helped researchers determine club foot’s potential causes