The Apgar Score (1953-1958)

The Apgar Score (1953-1958)In 1952 Virginia Apgar, a physician at the Sloane Women’s Hospital in New York City, New York, created the Apgar score as a method of evaluating newborn infants’ health to determine if they required medical intervention. The score included five separate categories, including heart rate, breathing rate, reaction to stimuli, muscle activity, and color. An infant received a score from zero to two in each category, and those scores added up to the infant’s total score out of ten. An infant with a score of ten was healthy, and those with low scores required medical attention at birth. Apgar originally used the score to determine how infants responded to the pain-relieving drugs given to pregnant women during labor. The Apgar score also served to determine when the infant required medical assistance, especially oxygen resuscitation. As of

The Effects of Gene Regulation on Aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (2003)

The Effects of Gene Regulation on Aging in <a href="/search?text=Caenorhabditis%20elegans" title="" class="lexicon-term">Caenorhabditis elegans</a> (2003)

Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)

Virginia Apgar (1909-1974)Virginia Apgar worked as an obstetrical anesthesiologist, administering drugs that reduce women's pain during childbirth, in the mid-twentieth century US. In 1953, Apgar created a scoring system using five easily assessable measurements, including heart rate and breathing rate, to evaluate whether or not infants would benefit from medical attention immediately after birth. Apgar's system showed that infants who were previously set aside as too sick to survive, despite low Apgar scores, could recover with immediate medical attention. Additionally, Apgar researched the effects of anesthesia used during childbirth and advocated for the prevention and management of birth defects. Apgar's work led to a decrease in infant mortality rates in the mid-twentieth century and into the twenty-first century, and

Acid Dissolution of Fossil Dinosaur Eggs

Acid Dissolution of Fossil Dinosaur EggsAcid dissolution is a technique of removing a fossil from the surrounding rock matrix in which it is encased by dissolving that matrix with acid. Fossilized bone, though strong enough to be preserved for thousands or millions of years, is often more delicate than rock. Once a fossil is discovered, scientists must remove the fossil from its surroundings without damaging the fossil itself. Scientists have used chemicals to expose vertebrate fossils since the 1930s, and in the late 1990s Terry Manning, an amateur scientist and technician working in England, adapted the technology to dinosaur eggs. Manning used acid dissolution on dinosaur eggs to expose the embryos beneath the rock and fossil shell. Manning's acid dissolution enabled scientists to better study the remains of dinosaur embryos otherwise hidden beneath layers of eggshell and

Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861)

Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861)Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire studied anatomy and congenital abnormalities in humans and other animals in nineteenth century France. Under the tutelage of his father, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Isidore compiled and built on his father's studies of individuals with developmental malformations, then called monstrosities. In 1832, Isidore published Histoire générale et particulière des anomalies de l'organisation chez l'homme et les animaux (General and Particular History of Structural Monstrosities in Man and Animals), in which he defined the term teratology as the study of birth defects and deformities.

The Infant Incubator in Europe (1860-1890)

The Infant Incubator in Europe (1860-1890)In the nineteenth century, obstetricians in Europe began to construct devices to incubate infants in increasingly controlled environments. The infant incubator is a medical device that maintains stable conditions and a germ free environment for premature infants born before the thirty-seventh week of pregnancy. Records show that physicians had used infant incubators since 1835. However, Jean-Louis-Paul Denucé, a physician who worked in Bordeaux, France, first published about incubator technology in 1857. Carl Credé released his incubator model in Germany in 1860 and Stéphane Tarnier further developed the model in 1884. The infant incubator technology provides a stable environment for premature infants and helps keep them alive.

"The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains" (1964), by Leonard Hayflick

"The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains" (1964), by <a href="/search?text=Leonard%20Hayflick" title="" class="lexicon-term">Leonard Hayflick</a>Leonard Hayflick in the US during the early 1960s showed that normal populations of embryonic cells divide a finite number of times. He published his results as "The Limited In Vitro Lifetime of Human Diploid Cell Strains" in 1964. Hayflick performed the experiment with WI-38 fetal lung cells, named after the Wistar Institute, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where Hayflick worked. Frank MacFarlane Burnet later called the limit in capacity for cellular division the Hayflick Limit in 1974.

John Chassar Moir (1900–1977)

John Chassar Moir (1900–1977)John Chassar Moir lived in the UK during the twentieth century and helped develop techniques to improve the health of pregnant women. Moir helped to discover compounds that doctors could administer to women after childbirth to prevent life-threatening blood loss. Those compounds included the ergot alkaloid called ergometrine, also called ergonovine, and d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide. Moir tested ergometrine in postpartum patients and documented that it helped prevent or lessen postpartum hemorrhage in women. Moir also developed methods to treat tears between the bladder and the vagina, called vesico-vaginal fistulas, that occur due to complications of childbirth, and that cause urinary incontinence in women who have them.

Margaret Ann Bulkley (James Barry) (1789−1865)

Margaret Ann Bulkley (James Barry) (1789−1865) Margaret Ann Bulkley, under the male pseudonym James Barry, was one of the first female obstetricians in early nineteenth century British Empire. She was the first person to perform a cesarean section in South Africa. Cesarean section is a procedure in which a doctor cuts into the uterus of a pregnant woman to retrieve the fetus during complicated births. Bulkley hid her gender and lived life as the male Barry to practice medicine, an opportunity not allowed to women at the time. Barry's position as a Medical Inspector with the British Army enabled her to travel the world as a physician and to practice surgical techniques including the removal of fetuses during complicated births.

William Thornton Mustard (1914-1987)

William Thornton Mustard (1914-1987) William Thornton Mustard was a surgeon in Canada during the twentieth century who developed surgical techniques to treat children who had congenital heart defects. Mustard has two surgeries named after him, both of which he helped to develop. The first of these surgeries replaces damaged or paralyzed muscles in individuals who have polio, a virus that can cause paralysis. The other technique corrects a condition called the transposition of the great arteries (TGA) that is noticed at birth. Surgeons worldwide adopted that technique, leading to increased survival rates in infants afflicted with the condition. Mustard also published over 100 articles on congenital heart defects, surgical techniques, and the preparation of an artificial heart lung machine.