Mammography

MammographyMammography or mastography is an imaging technology developed in the twentieth century for the detection of breast cancer and other breast abnormalities. Breast cancer is an abnormal growth in breast tissue that can spread to other parts of the body and cause death. Breast cancer affects about twelve percent of women worldwide. In the twenty-first century, mammography is one of the most accurate tools for screening and diagnosing breast cancer. A mammogram is the image that is created after sending low-level X-rays through breast tissue while a digital recorder captures the image. A radiologist analyzes the mammogram to diagnose any abnormalities. A Senographe is the instrument used to create the mammogram to screen for breast cancer and other breast diseases. Mammography enabled physicians to diagnose breast cancer in the early stages, significantly decreasing the number of deaths from breast cancer.

Priscilla White (1900–1989)

Priscilla White (1900–1989)Priscilla White studied the treatment of diabetes in mothers, pregnant women, and children during the twentieth century in the United States. White began working with children with Type 1 diabetes in 1924 at Elliott Proctor Joslin’s practice in Boston, Massachusetts. Type 1 diabetes is an incurable disease where the pancreas produces little to no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that allows the body to use sugar from food for energy and store sugars for future use. Joslin and White authored many publications on children and diabetes, in 1952, White helped Joslin found the Joslin Clinic. White noted that many of the children with whom she worked also had parents with the disease. Her research focused on diabetic pregnant women and female children with diabetes. White implemented the technique of delivering infants of diabetic

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)

<a href="/search?text=Webster%20v.%20Reproductive%20Health%20Services%20%281989%29" title="" class="lexicon-term">Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)</a> In the 1989 case Webster v. Reproductive Health Services, the US Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a Missouri law regulating abortion care. The Missouri law prohibited the use of public facilities, employees, or funds to provide abortion counseling or services. The law also placed restrictions on physicians who provided abortions. A group of physicians affected by the law challenged the constitutionality of certain sections of it. The US federal district court that first heard the case ruled many of the challenged sections of the law unconstitutional. The Missouri attorney general then appealed

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby (2014)

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby (2014)In the 2014 case Burwell v. Hobby Lobby, the US Supreme Court ruled that the contraceptive mandate promulgated under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act violated privately held, for-profit corporations’ right to religious freedom. In 2012, the US Department of Health and Human Services issued the contraception mandate, which required that employer-provided health insurance plans offer their beneficiaries certain contraceptive methods free of charge. In a five to four decision, the US Supreme Court maintained that the mandate, in cases of privately held, for-profit organizations like Hobby Lobby Inc., violated the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993. Although the

Ian Donald (1910–1987)

<a href="/search?text=Ian%20Donald" title="" class="lexicon-term">Ian Donald</a> (1910–1987) Ian Donald was an obstetrician who developed ultrasound diagnostics during the twentieth century in Europe. Ultrasound is a medical diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to produce images of the inside of the body. During the early 1900s, physicians had no way to see inside a woman’s uterus during pregnancy. Donald developed the first method of scanning human internal anatomy in real time, which enabled doctors to diagnose potentially fatal tumors and

Ernest John Christopher Polge (1926-2006)

Ernest John Christopher Polge (1926-2006)Twentieth-century researcher Ernest John Christopher Polge studied the reproductive processes of livestock and determined a method to successfully freeze, thaw, and utilize viable sperm cells to produce offspring in animals. In 1949, Polge identified glycerol as a cryoprotectant, or a medium that enables cells to freeze without damaging their cellular components or functions. Several years later, Polge used glycerol in a freezing process called vitrification, which enabled him to freeze poultry sperm, thaw that sperm, and use it to

Emma Goldman (1869–1940)

Emma Goldman (1869–1940)Emma Goldman was a traveling public speaker and writer known for her anarchist political views as well as her opinions on contraception and birth limiting in the late nineteenth century in the United States. Goldman identified as an anarchist, which she explained as being part of an ideology in which people use violence to provoke or demand social and political change. Goldman was involved in many anarchist social groups and published the anarchist magazine Mother Earth. She spent the majority of her life traveling the US and Europe giving lectures and presentations on her views of the political events of the late nineteenth century. Goldman also worked to spread awareness about birth control in

Norbert Freinkel (1926–1989)

Norbert Freinkel (1926–1989)During the twentieth century, Norbert Freinkel studied hormones and diabetes in the United States. Freinkel conducted many experiments that enabled him to determine the factors that influence hormones of the thyroid gland and how those hormones affect surrounding tissues. Furthermore, Freinkel studied gestational diabetes, which is diabetes that occurs for the first time during a woman’s pregnancy. That type of diabetes is caused by a change in the way a woman’s body responds to insulin, a hormone made in the

“Sierra Leone’s Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health” (2010), by Theresa S. Betancourt, Robert T. Brennan, Julia Rubin-Smith, Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, and Stephen E. Gilman

“Sierra Leone’s Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health” (2010), by Theresa S. Betancourt, Robert T. Brennan, Julia Rubin-Smith, Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, and Stephen E. GilmanIn 2010, Theresa S. Betancourt, Robert T. Brennan, Julia Rubin-Smith, Garrett M. Fitzmaurice, and Stephen E. Gliman, published “Sierra Leone’s Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health” in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The paper describes the results of a longitudinal study of former Sierra Leone child soldiers that examines how protective and risk factors affect children’s post-conflict mental health outcomes over several years of development. Researchers from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, conducted the study in

The Dalkon Shield

The Dalkon ShieldThe Dalkon Shield was an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) that women used in the early 1970s and 1980s. Produced by the A.H. Robins Company in the US, the Dalkon Shield was a contraceptive device placed directly into a woman’s uterus that was supposed to prevent pregnancy. In the 1980s, researchers discovered that the Dalkon Shield caused an array of severe injuries, including pelvic infection, infertility, unintended pregnancy, and death. Eventually the A.H. Robins Company took the shield off the market, and the US Food and Drug