Matthew Howard Kaufman (1942-2013)
Matthew Kaufman was a professor of anatomy at the University of Edinburgh
, in Edinburgh, UK, who specialized in mouse
anatomy, development, and embryology
during the late twentieth century. According to the The Herald
, he was the first, alongside his colleague Martin Evans, to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells
. Researchers initially called those cells Evans-Kaufman cells. In 1992, Kaufman published The Atlas of Mouse Development
, a book that included photographs of mice development and mice organs over time.
Physician Labeling Rule (2006)
In 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration
, or FDA, published the “Requirements on Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products,” also called the Physician Labeling Rule, to improve the safety and efficacy of prescription drugs and drug products. Within the Physician Labeling Rule, the FDA includes a section titled “Use in Specific Populations” or Section 8, which refers to drugs used by pregnant women, lactating women, and people of reproductive capacity. The FDA stated that the purpose of the Physician Labeling Rule was to make drug labels easier for physicians to understand and use when prescribing drugs to pregnant women.
Marshall Henry Klaus (1927–2017)
Marshall Henry Klaus was a scientist and pediatrician who studied maternal-infant bonding in the twentieth century in the United States. Maternal-infant bonding is the psychological and chemical attachment between mother and infant. Klaus cofounded DONA International, an organization
that trains birthing aides, called doulas, to provide physical and emotional support to laboring mothers. He also studied the differences between the layouts and quality of care provided in nurseries and birthing centers in different countries and compared them to those found in the United States. Klaus’s study influenced national and international initiatives to create hospital policies focused on promoting early bonding between mother and infant.
David Michael Rorvik (1944–)
David Michael Rorvik is a science journalist who publicized advancements in the field of reproductive medicine during the late twentieth century. Rorvik wrote magazine articles and books in which he discussed emerging methods and technologies that contributed to the progression of reproductive health, including sex determination
, in vitro fertilization
, and human cloning
. During that time, those topics were controversial and researchers often questioned Rorvik’s work for accuracy.
Copper Intrauterine Device (IUD)
The copper intrauterine device, or IUD, is a long-term, reversible contraceptive first introduced by Howard Tatum and Jamie Zipper in 1967. Health care providers place an IUD inside a woman’s uterus
to prevent pregnancy
. Copper IUDs are typically made of T-shaped plastic with some portion covered with exposed copper. Prior to the invention of the first IUDs, women had few long-term options for safe and reliable birth control
. Those options mostly consisted of barrier methods and the oral birth control
pill, which were only effective if used correctly and consistently.
Roe v. Wade (1973)Editor's Note
: This article replaces the previous
article on this topic, which was published in this encyclopedia
in 2008. The 2008 article may be found here.
Liberation Union (1969–1977)
The Chicago Women’s Liberation Union, hereafter Union or CWLU, was a
feminist union that operated in Chicago, Illinois, from 1969 to 1977
and was the first and largest union, at the time of its operation,
focused on women’s issues. The Union organized women with the
self-proclaimed collective goal of achieving liberation from sexism
and inequality. Within the larger CWLU, smaller groups and chapters
formed to address issues such as abortion
, rape, child care, and reproductive health, among others. During CWLU’s eight years of
operation, the activists circulated petitions, held demonstrations,
and visited high schools to raise public awareness of women’s
issues. The CWLU created educational opportunities for women in
response to apparent sexism in the US and connected them to
“Kangaroo Mother Care to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in Low Birthweight Infants” (2016), by Agustin Conde-Agudelo and José Díaz-Rossello
In 2016, physician researchers Agustin Conde-Agudelo and José Díaz-Rossello published “Kangaroo Mother Care to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in Low Birthweight Infants,” in which they compared the effectiveness of Kangaroo Mother Care to that of traditional treatments for low birth weight newborns. Physicians began using Kangaroo Mother Care in the 1970s as a treatment for low birth weight infants. The treatment, which involves exclusive breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact, was created to help mothers care for low birth weight infants in developing.
Fortunio Liceti (1577–1657)
Fortunio Liceti studied natural philosophy and medicine in Italy during the first half of the seventeenth century. Liceti wrote greater than seventy works on a wide range of topics, including the human soul, reproduction, and birth defects
observed in animals and human infants. In the seventeenth century, people commonly addressed birth defects
using superstition and considered them as signs of evil, possibly caused by spiritual or supernatural entities. Liceti described infants with birth defects
as prodigies and monsters to be admired and studied rather than feared.
Simone Mary Campbell (1945–)
Simone Campbell is a Roman Catholic sister, attorney, and poet who advocated for social justice, especially equal access to healthcare in the US in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Campbell worked as a lawyer and served the working poor in California. As of 2018, she works for NETWORK, a lobbying group in Washington DC that focuses on broadening access to healthcare by lowering costs. In response to proposed federal budget cuts that would disproportionately affect the poor, Campbell organized Nuns on the Bus, a group of nuns who traveled across the US to publicize the potential effects of the budget cuts. She also organized the Nun’s Letter that supported the passage of the Affordable Care Act.