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Adib Jatene (1929–2014)

Adib Jatene (1929–2014) Adib Jatene in Brazil was the first surgeon to successfully perform the arterial switch operation in 1975. The operation corrected a heart condition in infants called transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Left untreated, infants with TGA die, as their blood cannot supply oxygen to their bodies. Jatene's operation became widely used to correct the condition. Aside from medical research, Jatene worked for years in politics and education, serving as Brazil's minister of health and teaching thoracic surgery at the University of São Paulo.

Treatment of Anemia during Pregnancy (1931), by Lucy Wills

Treatment of Anemia during Pregnancy (1931), by Lucy Wills In 1931, physician Lucy Wills conducted a study of nutritional deficiencies that caused anemia in pregnant women in Bombay, India, later renamed Mumbai. Anemia is a lack of healthy red blood cells in the blood. Wills published the results of her study in the medical article "Treatment of ‘Pernicious Anaemia of Pregnancy' and ‘Tropical Anaemia'" in the British Medical Journal in 1931. Wills's research contributed to knowledge of anemia and the possible causes associated with the disease, such as the symptoms of fatigue and irritability. Wills attempted to connect the association of B vitamins and anemia. Wills's findings

An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (1895), by Edmund Beecher Wilson

An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (1895), by <a href="/search?text=Edmund%20Beecher%20Wilson" title="" class="lexicon-term">Edmund Beecher Wilson</a> Edmund Beecher Wilson in the US published An Atlas of Fertilization and Karyokinesis of the Ovum (hereafter called An Atlas) in 1895. The book presents photographs by photographer Edward Leaming that capture stages of fertilization, the fusion of sperm and egg and early

"Testing the Kin Selection Theory: Who Controls the Investments?" from The Ants (1990), by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. Wilson

"Testing the Kin Selection Theory: Who Controls the Investments?" from The Ants (1990), by Bert Hölldobler and Edward O. WilsonIn "Testing the Kin Selection Theory: Who Controls the Investments?" Bert Hölldobler and Edward Osborne Wilson discussed the predictive power of kin selection theory, a theory about the evolution of social behaviors. As part of Hölldobler and Wilson's 1990 book titled The Ants, Hölldobler and Wilson compared predictions about the reproductive practices of ants to data about the reproductive practices of ants. They showed that the data generally supported the expected behaviors proposed by kin selection theory. Later in their careers, both Hölldobler and Wilson argued that kin selection theory provided an

The Meselson-Stahl Experiment (1957–1958), by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl

The Meselson-Stahl <a href="/search?text=Experiment" title="" class="lexicon-term">Experiment</a> (1957–1958), by Matthew Meselson and Franklin StahlIn an experiment later named for them, Matthew Stanley Meselson and Franklin William Stahl in the US demonstrated during the 1950s the semi-conservative replication of DNA, such that each daughter DNA molecule contains one new daughter subunit and one subunit conserved from the parental DNA molecule. The researchers conducted the experiment at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, from October 1957 to January 1958.

Maurice Ralph Hilleman (1919–2005)

Maurice Ralph Hilleman (1919–2005) Maurice Ralph Hilleman developed vaccines at the Merck Institute of Therapeutic Research in West Point, Pennsylvania, during the twentieth century. Over the course of his career at Merck, Hilleman created over forty vaccines, making him one of the most prolific developers of vaccine in the twentieth century. Of the fourteen vaccines commonly given to children in the US by 2015, Hilleman was responsible for eight of them. Hilleman's most widely used vaccine was his measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Hilleman's MMR vaccine prevented many diseases and also rubella in millions of children and pregnant women. Rubella in pregnant women often led to congenital rubella syndrome in the fetus, causing severe malformations.

"Health Status of Vietnam Veterans III. Reproductive Outcomes and Child Health" (1988) by the US Centers for Disease Control

"Health Status of Vietnam Veterans III. Reproductive Outcomes and Child Health" (1988) by the US Centers for Disease Control

Norman Haire (1892-1952)

Norman Haire(1892-1952) Norman Haire was a physician who advocated for eugenics, which is the betterment of human population by promoting positive traits, and birth control rights in the twentieth century in both Australia and the UK. In the UK, Haire joined the Malthusian League, a contraception advocacy organization, and helped the League open the first physician-supervised birth control clinic, called Walworth Women’s Welfare Centre in London, England. Throughout his life,

Stanley Alan Plotkin (1932– )

Stanley Alan Plotkin (1932– ) Stanley Alan Plotkin developed vaccines in the United States during the mid to late twentieth century. Plotkin began his research career at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he studied the rubella virus. In pregnant women, the rubella virus caused congenital rubella syndrome in the fetus, which led to various malformations and birth defects. Using WI-38 cells, a line of cells that originated from tissues of aborted fetuses, Plotkin successfully created RA27/3, a weakened strain of the rubella virus, which he then used to develop a rubella vaccine. Plotkin's rubella vaccine has

The Link Between DNA Markers on the X Chromosome and Male Sexual Orientation (1993)

The link Between DNA Markers on the X Chromosome and Male Sexual Orientation (1993) In 1993, Dean H. Hamer and colleagues in the US published results from their research that indicated that men with specific genes were more likely to be homosexual than were men without those genes. The study hypothesized that some X chromosomes contain a gene, Xq28, that increases the likelihood of an individual to be homosexual. Prior to those results, researchers had argued that the cause of homosexuality was environmental and that homosexuality could be altered or reversed. Hamer’s research suggested a possible genetic cause of homosexuality. The study inspired further research into biological mechanisms of homosexuality.

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