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Barbara Seaman (1935–2008)

Barbara Seaman (1935–2008)Barbara Seaman was a writer, investigator, and advocate for female healthcare rights during the twentieth century in the United States. Seaman’s work addressed the gendered prejudice she observed in the US healthcare system and argued that women of the 1960s lacked the proper tools to make informed decisions about pregnancy care, breastfeeding, childbirth, and contraception. Seaman wrote the book The Doctor’s Case Against the Pill in 1969 to expose the dangers in prescribing and consuming high doses of estrogen in the form of birth control.

The ‘Kangaroo-Method’ for Treating Low Birth Weight Babies in a Developing Country” (1994), by Nils Bergman and Agneta Jürisoo

“The ‘Kangaroo-Method’ for Treating Low Birth <a href="/search?text=Weight" title="" class="lexicon-term">Weight</a> Babies in a Developing Country” (1994), by Nils Bergman and Agneta JürisooIn the 1994 article “The ‘Kangaroo-Method’ for Treating Low Birth Weight Babies in a Developing Country,” authors Nils Bergman and Agneta Jürisoo evaluate the effectiveness of the Kangaroo Care method in treating low birth weight infants at Manama Mission Hospital in Gwanda, Zimbabwe. Low birth weight infants face many medical complications. In developing countries, where the prevalence of low birth weight infants is highest, there is limited access to the technology or skilled personnel required to keep those infants alive.

The Woman Rebel (1914)

The Woman Rebel (1914)In the early twentieth century, birth control advocate Margaret Sanger published eight issues of a feminist magazine called The Woman Rebel. During this time, discussion of sex education, birth control, and abortion were illegal. The magazine featured literary pieces on topics like women’s rights, love and marriage, women in the workplace, reproductive and sexual education, and contraception. The Woman Rebel was one of the first magazines that discussed issues that working class American women faced.

Dana Louise Raphael (1926–2016)

Dana Louise Raphael (1926–2016)Dana Louise Raphael was an anthropologist and breastfeeding advocate in the US during the twentieth century. After she was unable to breastfeed her own infant, Raphael began to research why breastfeeding was more common in other cultures than in the US. As part of that research, Raphael cofounded the Human Lactation Center, where she studied the breastfeeding habits of mothers around the world. Through that research, she coordinated with formula manufacturers to educate women on the benefits of breastfeeding and formula supplementation to reduce infant mortality in developing nations. In addition, Raphael was the first person to use the word doula to describe a childbirth support companion for laboring women. Raphael was an advocate for the acceptance of breastfeeding around the world, and asserted the importance of doula support for new mothers in the form of breastfeeding education.

Twilight Sleep

Twilight SleepTwilight Sleep (Dammerschlaf) was a form of childbirth first used in the early twentieth century in Germany in which drugs caused women in labor to enter a state of sleep prior to giving birth and awake from childbirth with no recollection of the procedure. Prior to the early twentieth century, childbirth was performed at home and women did not have anesthetics to alleviate the pain of childbirth. In 1906, obstetricians Bernhardt Kronig and Karl Gauss developed the twilight sleep method to relieve the pain of childbirth using a combination of the drugs scopolamine and morphine. Twilight sleep contributed to changing childbirth from an at home process to a hospital procedure and increased the use of anesthetics in obstetrics.

Kangaroo Mother Care

Kangaroo Mother CarePhysician researchers Edgar Rey Sanabria and Héctor Martínez-Gómez developed the Kangaroo Mother Program in Bogotá, Colombia, in 1979, as an alternative to conventional incubator treatment for low birth weight infants. As of 2018, low birth weight and its associated complications are the leading causes of infant death, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries where access to technology and skilled healthcare providers is limited. Kangaroo Mother Care is a simple and low cost method for treating low birth weight infants. Even though researchers developed the Kangaroo Mother Care method for infants born in hospitals with limited resources, they demonstrated that the method could be just as effective as conventional treatments. Kangaroo Mother Care changed the standard of care for low birth weight infants, making life-saving medical

“Improving Women’s Health”: Section 3509 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010

“Improving Women’s Health”: Section 3509 of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 In 2010, US Congress enacted section 3509 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act or ACA, to target issues relating to women’s health. The ACA, signed into law by US President Barack Obama, aimed to increase people’s access to high-quality healthcare in the United States. Section 3509, titled “Improving Women’s Health,” established the Office on Women’s Health within the US Department of Health and Human Services and in four of its agencies, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Health Resources and Services Administration. Section 3509 of the ACA

John George Children (1777–1852)

John George Children (1777–1852)John George Children described several species of insects and animals while working at the British Museum in London, England, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Children also conducted research on chemical batteries called voltaic cells and briefly studied and manufactured gunpowder. One of the species he described, the Children’s python, or Antaresia childreni, was used in the twenty-first century as the subject of experiments that involved the biological cost of reproduction in snakes. Those experiments helped examine the importance of thermoregulation during gestation as a possible reason for the evolution of live

Mammography

MammographyMammography or mastography is an imaging technology developed in the twentieth century for the detection of breast cancer and other breast abnormalities. Breast cancer is an abnormal growth in breast tissue that can spread to other parts of the body and cause death. Breast cancer affects about twelve percent of women worldwide. In the twenty-first century, mammography is one of the most accurate tools for screening and diagnosing breast cancer. A mammogram is the image that is created after sending low-level X-rays through breast tissue while a digital recorder captures the image. A radiologist analyzes the mammogram to diagnose any abnormalities. A Senographe is the instrument used to create the mammogram to screen for breast cancer and other breast diseases. Mammography enabled physicians to diagnose breast cancer in the early stages, significantly decreasing the number of deaths from breast cancer.

Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913–1994)

Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913–1994)Roger Wolcott Sperry studied the function of the nervous system in the United States during the twentieth century. He studied split-brain patterns in cats and humans that result from separating the two hemispheres of the brain after cutting the corpus callosum, the bridge between the two hemispheres of the brain. He found that after separating the corpus callosum, the two hemispheres of the brain could not communicate and they performed functions as if the other hemisphere did not exist. Sperry also studied optic nerve regeneration and developed the chemoaffinity hypothesis. The chemoaffinity hypothesis stated that axons, the long fiber-like part of neurons,

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